Pennsylvania Civil War History

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Pennsylvania in the American Civil War

Pennsylvania Civil War history


Five days after Delaware received statehood, Pennsylvania became the second state by ratifying the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787.

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, and the Great Lakes region. The state borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and Ontario, Canada to the northwest, New York to the north and New Jersey to the east.

Before Pennsylvania was settled by Europeans, the area was home to the Delaware (also known as Lenni Lenape), Susquehannock, Iroquois, Erie, Shawnee and other Native American tribes. Most of these tribes were driven off or reduced to remnants as a result of the European colonization. It was colonized by Dutch in 1631, who brought slaves into the colony, and subsequently colonized by Swedish settlers in 1638. In 1664, the English conquered the area. 

The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in British America by William Penn on March 4, 1681, as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname (in honor of William's father, Admiral Sir William Penn) with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land". The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. In the mid-eighteenth century, the colony attracted many German and Scots-Irish immigrants; the latter was the largest ethnic group from the British Isles prior to the American Revolutionary War.

Pennsylvania Civil War Map
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Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, Map

(Right) A map of the Province of Pennsylvania.

During  the American Civil War (1861-1865), Pennsylvania played a critical role in the Union, providing a huge supply of military manpower, equipment, and leadership to the Federal government. The state raised more than 360,000 soldiers for the Federal armies, and served as a major source of artillery guns, small arms, ammunition, armor for ironclad United States Navy gunboats, and food supplies. The Phoenixville Iron Company by itself produced well over 1,000 cannons, and the Frankford Arsenal was a major supply depot.

Pennsylvania was the site of the bloodiest battle of the entire war, Gettysburg, which became widely known as the "High Water Mark of the Confederacy." Numerous other smaller engagements were also fought in Pennsylvania during the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign and during an 1864 cavalry raid that culminated in the burning of much of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The industrial town of York, Pennsylvania, was the largest city in the North to be occupied by the Confederate States Army during the war.

Several leading generals and politicians hailed from the commonwealth, including George G. Meade (the victor at Gettysburg), Winfield S. Hancock, John F. Reynolds, Simon Cameron and Thaddeus Stevens, a powerful and outspoken figure among the Radical Republicans. Generals Montgomery C. Meigs and Herman Haupt made significant contributions to the military effort in logistics and railroads, respectively.


When the Dutch and Swedish established colonies in the Delaware Valley, they quickly imported African slaves for workers, or transported them from New Netherland; slavery was documented as early as 1639. After the founding of Pennsylvania in 1681, Philadelphia became the region's main port for the import of slaves. Throughout the colony and state's history, the majority of slaves lived in or near that city.  William Penn and the colonists who settled Pennsylvania tolerated slavery, but the Quakers and later German immigrants were among the first to speak out against it. Many Methodists and Baptists also opposed it on religious grounds and urged manumission during the Great Awakening. High British tariffs in the 18th century discouraged the importation of additional slaves, and encouraged the use of white indentured servants and free labor.

After the American Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania passed the Gradual Abolition Act (1780), the first such law in the new United States. Vermont abolished slavery in its constitution of 1777. Pennsylvania's law established as free those children born to slave mothers after that date. They had to serve lengthy periods of indentured servitude until age 28 before becoming fully free as adults. Emancipation proceeded and by 1810 there were fewer than 1,000 slaves in the Commonwealth. None appeared in records after 1847.


James Buchanan (known as the "Bachelor President"), of Franklin County, was the only President of the United States born in Pennsylvania. His successor was Abraham Lincoln.

During the 1860 Presidential Election, Pennsylvania voted in favor of Abraham Lincoln (268,030 votes or 56.3% of the ballots cast) over Stephen Douglas (178,765; 37.5%), John C. Breckinridge (16,765; 3.5%), and John Bell (12,776; 2.7%).

Throughout the American Civil War, Pennsylvania politics were dominated by Republicans under the capable leadership of Governor Andrew G. Curtin, a strong supporter of President Lincoln. The extreme southern tier of the state included a fair number of Copperheads, particularly in Fulton, Adams, and York counties. On the national level, Simon Cameron served as Secretary of War during the early years of Lincoln's administration. Congressman Thaddeus Stevens became one of the leading voices of the Radical Republicans in Washington, and was a hawk on the war efforts and in his harsh views on Reconstruction. Stevens' Caledonia Iron Works were burned by Jubal A. Early's Confederates during the Gettysburg Campaign in direct response to his strong stance supporting scorched earth policies in the South.

After the Battle of Antietam in fall of 1862, thirteen Union governors assembled in Altoona, Pennsylvania, at the Loyal War Governors' Conference. This meeting was assembled by Governor Andrew G. Curtin and gave Abraham Lincoln the very much needed political power to support the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation. By late 1864, the majority of Pennsylvania voters had rallied around the president and supported his incumbency in the Presidential Election, giving Lincoln 296,292 votes or 51.6% of the ballots cast versus Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's 277,443 votes (48.4%).

Pennsylvania and the American Civil War
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State of Pennsylvania and US Expansion Map


In order to supply the Union war effort, Pennsylvania industries turned their attention toward producing war material. The Alleghany Arsenal, Fort Pitt Works, Frankford Arsenal, and Schuylkill Arsenal produced thousands of cannons, ammunition, and clothing. Additionally, the Baldwin Locomotive Works assisted in building railroad engines that the armies used to transport troops and materials during the war; the Philadelphia navy yard allowed for warships and supply ships to harbor; and coal mines across the commonwealth helped keep these industries operating.

Pennsylvania was a critical source of raw materials to the Union war effort, particularly anthracite coal. The commonwealth supplied all of this "smokeless" coal for military purposes, as well as the majority of bituminous coal also used in the war effort. Nearly 80% of all the iron for the government came from Pennsylvania foundries, as well as significant quantities of flour, meat, foodstuffs, textiles and uniforms. The Cumberland Valley was among the fertile farming regions that supplied vast amounts of food and grain to the army. The railroads became critical in transporting materiel and troops. In particular, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad were of importance, as well as the Northern Central Railway, which led from Harrisburg to Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.

The Bethlehem Iron Works produced railroad rails and armor plating for the US Navy ships. The largest producer of wrought iron artillery pieces for the Union army was the Phoenixville Iron Company in Chester County, which, at its peak, churned out fifty 3" Ordnance Rifles each week. Smaller facilities produced steel swords, rifles, pistols, tools, camp implements, tents and other items used by the Federal armies, making Pennsylvania one of most important sources of government supplies during the war.

The Philadelphia region was a major contributor to the war effort. The Frankford Arsenal was a vital source of small-arms, ammunition, artillery shells, and time fuses to the Federal army and state militia. The Philadelphia Navy Yard provided an important source of ships, sailors, and supplies for the United States Navy during the war. The vast majority of the coal used by the Navy for its warships and blockaders came from underground mines in several counties in northern Pennsylvania. The Satterlee Hospital and the Mower Hospital (both near Philadelphia) were significant military hospitals and rehabilitation centers, as was the York U.S. Army General Hospital.

Pittsburgh's heavy industry provided significant quantities of weapons and ammunition. The Fort Pitt Works near Pittsburgh made mammoth iron castings for giant siege howitzers and mortars, among the largest guns in the world. The foundry produced 1,193 guns (15 percent of the total U.S. wartime artillery production) and almost 200,000 artillery projectiles. Other prominent Pittsburgh area factories included Singer, Nimick and Co. (maker of 3" Ordnance rifles) and Smith, Park and Co., which produced more than 300,000 artillery projectiles. Pittsburgh industries collectively manufactured 10 percent of the total U.S. wartime production of artillery projectiles.

The U.S. Allegheny Arsenal was the primary military manufacturing facility for U.S. Army accouterments, as well as saddles and other cavalry equipment. In addition, the Allegheny Arsenal produced as many as 40,000 bullets and cartridges every day (more than 14 million per year), supplying between 5 and 10 percent of the Army's annual small arms ammunition requirements.

Five Ellet-class rams were converted from civilian towboats at Pittsburgh. In addition, four ironclads were built from the keel up: the USS Manayunk, Marietta, Sandusky, and Umpqua. Pittsburgh rolling mills supplied the armor for many of the ironclads that were built in New York and Philadelphia.

Civil War

According to the 1860 US census, Pennsylvania had a population of 2,906,215.

Approximately 360,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army, more than any other Northern state except New York. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Pennsylvania mustered 215 infantry regiments, as well as dozens of emergency militia regiments that were raised to repel threatened invasions in 1862 and 1863 by the Confederate States Army. Twenty-two cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as dozens of light artillery batteries.

The vast majority of Pennsylvania soldiers fought in the Eastern Theater, with only about 10% serving elsewhere. The thirteen regiments of the Pennsylvania Reserves fought as the only army division all from a single state, and saw action in most of the major campaigns and battles of the Army of the Potomac. The Philadelphia Brigade was also a rarity, in that all of its regiments were recruited from a single city. In an unusual circumstance, the Philadelphia Corn Exchange sponsored and paid for a regiment, the 118th, which became known as the "Corn Exchange Regiment."

Secession of Southern States Map
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Pennsylvania and Civil War Secession Map

Most of the new Pennsylvania regiments were organized and trained at sprawling Camp Curtin near Harrisburg, as well as thousands of soldiers from other states. Other significant training sites were near Pittsburgh, Easton, Philadelphia and West Chester. Pennsylvania ranked first in the number of black soldiers (8,612) mustered into the Union Army, forming eleven regiments of U.S. Colored Troops. Most of these trained at Camp William Penn, established in 1863 north of Philadelphia. During the war, Pennsylvania suffered 33,183 in killed and several thousands more wounded. 187 Pennsylvanians would receive the Medal of Honor for their actions during battle.

Leading major generals from Pennsylvania included Winfield S. Hancock, John F. Reynolds, Samuel W. Crawford, John W. Geary, and John F. Hartranft (the latter two would use their military careers to propel them to the governorship following the war). Although he was born in Spain, George G. Meade lived much of his life in Pennsylvania and is buried in Philadelphia. Herman Haupt, who commanded the U.S. Military Railroad, revolutionized military transportation in the United States and was one of the unsung heroes of the war. Significant naval leaders included Admiral David D. Porter and Rear Admiral John Dahlgren.

As a result of its vital role as a Federal raw material source and its proximity to the Mason-Dixon Line, Pennsylvania was the target of several raids by the Confederate States Army. These included cavalry raids in 1862 and 1863 by J.E.B. Stuart, in 1863 by John Imboden, and in 1864 by John McCausland in which his troopers burned the city of Chambersburg. Fears were raised in Pittsburgh in the summer of 1863 when Morgan's Raid approached Pennsylvania before it was thwarted in neighboring Ohio.

Pennsylvania soil was also host to the Battle of Gettysburg. Many historians consider this battle to be a major turning point of the Civil War. Federal dead from this battle rest at Gettysburg National Cemetery, site of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. A number of smaller engagements were also fought in the Keystone State, including the Battle of Hanover, Battle of Carlisle, Battle of Hunterstown, and the Battle of Fairfield, all during the Gettysburg Campaign. The city of York, Pennsylvania, became the largest Northern city to be occupied by Confederate troops when Jubal A. Early's division took control of the town in late June 1863 and extracted a ransom.


On October 10, 1862, Confederate Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, with 1800 cavalrymen, raided Chambersburg, destroying $250,000 of railroad property and taking 500 guns, hundreds of horses, and at least "eight young colored men and boys." They failed, however, to accomplish one of the main targets of the raid: to burn the railroad bridge across the Conococheague Creek at Scotland, five miles north of town.

During the early days of the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign, a Virginia cavalry brigade under Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins occupied the town and burned several warehouses and Cumberland Valley Railroad structures and the bridge at Scotland. From June 24–28, 1863, much of the Army of Northern Virginia passed through Chambersburg en route to Carlisle and Gettysburg, and Robert E. Lee established his headquarters at a nearby farm.

The following year, Chambersburg was invaded for a third time, as cavalry dispatched from the Shenandoah Valley by Jubal Early arrived. On July 30, 1864, a large portion of the town was burned down under orders from Brig. Gen. John McCausland for failing to provide a ransom of $500,000 in US currency, or $100,000 in gold. Among the few buildings left standing was the Masonic Temple, which had been guarded under orders by a Confederate mason. Norland, the home of Republican politician and editor Alexander McClure, was burned even though it was well north of the main fire.

Pennsylvania Civil War Battles Map
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Pennsylvania Civil War Battlefield Map


The Gettysburg Address
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Gettysburg Address Poster

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It was the battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.

After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. With his army in high spirits, Lee intended to shift the focus of the summer campaign from war-ravaged northern Virginia and hoped to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war by penetrating as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or even Philadelphia. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade.

Elements of the two armies initially collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, with his objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford, and soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south.

On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Peach Orchard. On the Union right, demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. All across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.

On the third day of battle, July 3, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge, known as Pickett's Charge. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great losses to the Confederate army. Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the three-day battle. That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. See also Ten Bloodiest and Costliest Battles of the American Civil War.

On November 19, 1863, following the Battle of Gettysburg, President Abraham Lincoln delivered The Gettysburg Address at the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania:

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."

Map of Pennsylvania Civil War Battlefields
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High Resolution Map of Pennsylvania


While Pennsylvania's farms increased in value following the war, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh became manufacturing centers in an industrial boom.

While the war still raged, efforts were underway in Gettysburg to preserve portions of the battlefield for future generations as a tribute to those men who fought there. Pennsylvania also took steps to preserve and record the history of each regiment and unit raised in the state, as well as the muster rolls. In 1869, the official commonwealth historian Samuel Penniman Bates wrote the monumental five-volume History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1865, which remains the standard reference for the commonwealth's regimental histories and unit rosters.  

The State Archives in Harrisburg preserves the military records of the state's emergency militia, as well as material on the state's volunteer regiments and batteries. It also houses microfilmed records of the damage claims from individuals in several counties, delineating losses of their personal property and possessions to the opposing armies during the Gettysburg Campaign. The Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee maintains and preserves 390 battleflags from various Pennsylvania units. The State Museum of Pennsylvania houses an extensive general collection of Civil War artifacts, as well as Peter Rothermel's massive painting of the Battle of Gettysburg.

The National Civil War Museum in Harrisburg is one of the country's leading interpretive sites for the Civil War, and the Visitors Center at the Gettysburg Battlefield holds thousands of artifacts, including the largest collection of vintage Civil War weapons in Pennsylvania. Other Civil War-related museums are scattered throughout the state, as well as county archives and hundreds of memorials, monuments, and historical markers. An impressive state-sponsored monument in the Gettysburg National Military Park honors Pennsylvania's soldiers and leaders.

See also

Sources: National Park Service; National Archives; Library of Congress; US Census Bureau; The Union Army (1908); Fox, William F. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War (1889); Phisterer, Frederick. Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States (1883); Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (1908); Hardesty, Jesse. Killed and died of wounds in the Union army during the Civil War (1915): Wright-Eley Co.; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Bates, Samuel P., Military History of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: T. H. Davis & Company, 1876; Blair, William and William Pencak, eds., Making and Remaking Pennsylvania's Civil War, Penn State Press, 2001 ISBN 0-271-02079-2; Klein, Philip Shriver, A History of Pennsylvania. Penn State University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-271-01934-4; Sauers, Richard A., Advance the Colors: Pennsylvania Civil War Battle Flags, Harrisburg: Capitol Preservation Committee, 1991;  U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 volumes in 4 series. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1880-1901; Bearss, Edwin C. Fields of Honor: Pivotal Battles of the Civil War. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2006. ISBN 0-7922-7568-3; Busey, John W., and David G. Martin. Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, 4th ed. Hightstown, NJ: Longstreet House, 2005. ISBN 0-944413-67-6; Carmichael, Peter S., ed. Audacity Personified: The Generalship of Robert E. Lee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8071-2929-1; Catton, Bruce. Glory Road. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1952. ISBN 0-385-04167-5; Clark, Champ, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Gettysburg: The Confederate High Tide. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985. ISBN 0-8094-4758-4; Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign; a study in command. New York: Scribner's, 1968. ISBN 0-684-84569-5; Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-684-80846-3; Eicher, David J. The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-84944-5; Esposito, Vincent J. West Point Atlas of American Wars. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. OCLC 5890637; Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 2, Fredericksburg to Meridian. New York: Random House, 1958. ISBN 0-394-49517-9; Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C. Grant and Lee: A Study in Personality and Generalship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1957. ISBN 0-253-13400-5; Gallagher, Gary W. Lee and His Army in Confederate History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8078-2631-7; Gallagher, Gary W. Lee and His Generals in War and Memory. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8071-2958-5; Glatthaar, Joseph T. General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse. New York: Free Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-684-82787-2; Harman, Troy D. Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8117-0054-2; Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-00918-5; Longacre, Edward G. The Cavalry at Gettysburg. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8032-7941-8; McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford History of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-503863-0; Martin, David G. Gettysburg July 1. rev. ed. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-938289-81-0; Nye, Wilbur S. Here Come the Rebels! Dayton, OH: Morningside House, 1984. ISBN 0-89029-080-6; Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg – The First Day. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8078-2624-3; Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg – The Second Day. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8078-1749-X; Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8078-2118-7; Rawley, James A. Turning Points of the Civil War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966. ISBN 0-8032-8935-9; Sauers, Richard A. "Battle of Gettysburg." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X; Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-395-86761-4; Symonds, Craig L. American Heritage History of the Battle of Gettysburg. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. ISBN 0-06-019474-X; Tagg, Larry. The Generals of Gettysburg. Campbell, CA: Savas Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-882810-30-9; Trudeau, Noah Andre. Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-06-019363-8; Tucker, Glenn. High Tide at Gettysburg. Dayton, OH: Morningside House, 1983. ISBN 978-0-914427-82-7; Wert, Jeffry D. Gettysburg: Day Three. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-85914-9; White, Ronald C., Jr. The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9; Wittenberg, Eric J., J. David Petruzzi, and Michael F. Nugent. One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4–14, 1863. New York: Savas Beatie, 2008. ISBN 978-1-932714-43-2; Woodworth, Steven E. Beneath a Northern Sky: A Short History of the Gettysburg Campaign. Wilmington, DE: SR Books (scholarly Resources, Inc.), 2003. ISBN 0-8420-2933-8.


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