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American Civil War
List of Battles to Famous Families to Reconstruction

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Introduction

While the American Civil War (1861-1865) is both comprehensive and complex, many aspects of the Civil War may be viewed and studied by lists. From list of Civil War battles to list of Civil War battlefields to list of Civil War soldiers to list of Northern and Southern states, lists allow the student the ability to gradually study parts of the conflict that collectively promote a greater understanding of all things Civil War. In simplicity, nevertheless, there was one principal goal, not goals, of the Civil War soldier. The singular purpose of the infantryman, artillerist, and cavalryman was to fight a battle and win.
 
List of Names for the Civil War
 
While President Abraham Lincoln coined the phrase, "Great Civil War," many soldiers, citizens, and newspapers had their own name for the war. Writings of prominent men such as Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, P.G.T. Beauregard, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Judah P. Benjamin used the term "Civil War" during the conflict. Abraham Lincoln used it on multiple occasions. In 1862, the United States Supreme Court used the terms "the present civil war between the United States and the so called Confederate States", as well as "the civil war such as that now waged between the Northern and Southern States".
 
The American Civil War presently has too many names to state, but the popular names were and remain: Brothers War, Brother Against Brother War, War of Secession, American Civil War, U.S. Civil War, War of the Rebellion, War of Northern Aggression, War of Southern Independence, and Confederate War.
 
List of Motives and Reasons for Fighting in the Civil War
 
The American Civil War came in a period of evangelical fervor and increasing religious diversity in America. When war commenced, churchgoers both North and South were equally sure that God was on their side, and both presidents invoked divine sanction for their cause. Others, such as Quakers, had to weigh the value of patriotism versus an opposition to war.
 
The Civil War witnessed divided families and communities, and it produced outlaws and community feuds that would endure well beyond the conclusion of the conflict. War was difficult, but to know, or to even view, your brother, father, nephew, grandfather, or uncle on the opposing side of the battlefield was extremely heartbreaking for many. So how did the soldiers cope knowing that kinfolk and relatives were on the opposite side? Since many viewed the war in a spiritual and religious perspective, it soothed their conscious by believing that the war was ordained by the Heavenly Father, and that they were on the Lord's side and that the Lord was on their side. Being in the Lord's army, as many soldiers wrote, made the conflict a war for the Lord and a war against His enemies. It gave the war the highest possible purpose, meaning, and mission. It therefore encouraged innumerable soldiers to enlist in the army believing it was sanctioned directly from the Almighty. General Stonewall Jackson even referred to the army in his command as the "Lord's Army." There were additional motives for Americans who joined either the Union or Confederate Army and fought during the Civil War: preservation of the Union, States' Rights, glory and honor, family and friends enlisted in the army, it will be a quick war so I don't want to miss the fight, and so on.

List of Civil War Battles and Battlefields
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List of Civil War Soldiers that died often contained mainly "Unknowns"

List of Civil War Killed
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President Abraham Lincoln gave his life so that others may live

(Above) While weapons referred to as small arms and firearms killed more soldiers than all other Civil War weapons combined, it was a firearm that also claimed the life of President Lincoln. Although the Civil War witnessed the first use of photography in combat, most of the war's photos were not released immediately for circulation. While many of the photographs of the dead were not released until 40 years after the war, innumerable photos were discarded because many Americans merely wanted to put any and all thoughts of the carnage of war behind them. The war killed 2% of the total US population, 620,000 Americans, and every community was scathed in some manner. Today, many read and study the conflict from history books and websites, but at the time, they endured the unimaginable, the unthinkable, and it was personal and up close. Present-day, however, occasionally a Civil War era photo is discovered and displayed allowing more insight into the war and the art of photography. One such photo discovered was of President Abraham Lincoln in a casket. While at the Illinois State Historical Library in 1952, a 14-year old boy was reading an old book and he found an envelope tucked between the pages that contained a photograph of President Abraham Lincoln in his coffin on April 24, 1865. The discovery startled historians, because Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's Secretary of War, had ordered this photograph to be destroyed. Stranger yet, the only surviving print remained with Stanton, whose son preserved it. It is also believed that the majority of the Civil War photos that exist have never been circulated. Perhaps the elusive photos are between the pages of grandma's old bible on a bookshelf, and in a dust covered chest or box in the attic or storage facility, and in an old book in your community library. See also List of Union and Confederate Weapons, Firearms, and Small Arms.

List of Civil War Battles and Armies with Duel Names
 
There is a disparity between the sides in naming some of the battles of the war. The Union forces frequently named battles for bodies of water or other natural features that were prominent on or near the battlefield; Confederates most often used the name of the nearest town or man-made landmark. Because of this, many battles actually have two widely used names. However, not all of the disparities are based on these naming conventions. Many modern accounts of Civil War battles use the names established by the North. However, for some battles, the Southern name has become the standard. The National Park Service occasionally uses the Southern names for their battlefield parks located in the South, such as Manassas and Shiloh. In general, naming conventions were determined by the victor of the battle. Examples of battles with dual names are shown in the table.
Historian Shelby Foote explains that many Northerners were urban and regarded bodies of water as noteworthy; many Southerners were rural and regarded towns as noteworthy.
 
Civil War armies were also named in a manner reminiscent of the battlefields: Northern armies were frequently named for major rivers (Army of the Potomac, Army of the Tennessee, Army of the Mississippi), Southern armies for states or geographic regions (Army of Northern Virginia, Army of Tennessee, Army of Mississippi).
 
Units smaller than armies were named differently in many cases. Corps were usually written out (First Army Corps or more simply, First Corps), although a post-war convention developed to designate Union corps using Roman numerals (XI Corps). Often, particularly with Southern armies, corps were more commonly known by the name of the leader (Hardee's Corps, Polk's Corps).
 
Union brigades were given numeric designations (1st, 2nd, ...), whereas Confederate brigades were frequently named after their commanding general (Hood's Brigade, Gordon's Brigade, ...). Confederate brigades so-named retained the name of the original commander even when commanded temporarily by another man; for example, at the Battle of Gettysburg, Hoke's Brigade was commanded by Isaac Avery and Nicholl's Brigade by Jesse Williams. Nicknames and nom de guerres  were common in both armies, such as the Iron Brigade and the Stonewall Brigade.
 
Union artillery batteries were generally named numerically; Confederate batteries by the name of the town or county in which they were recruited (Fluvanna Artillery). Again, they were often simply referred to by their commander's name (Moody's Battery, Parker's Battery). See also Organization of Union and Confederate Armies: Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery: HOMEPAGE.

List of Civil War Battles and Battlefields in Each Theater by Year

List of Civil War Battles Map
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American CIvil War Battles








































List of Civil War Battles by State
 






Civil War History
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Confederate President Jefferson Davis

List of Civil War Turning Points
 






American Civil War
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United States President Abraham Lincoln

List of Civil War Comparisons
 








































List of Civil War Firearms and Small Arms
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List of Civil War weapons most widely used by both armies

List of Civil War Battles by Union and Confederate Names

Date Southern name Northern name

July 21, 1861

First Manassas     First Bull Run

August 10, 1861

Oak Hills     Wilson's Creek

October 21, 1861

Leesburg     Ball's Bluff

January 19, 1862

Mill Spring     Logan's Cross Roads

March 7–8, 1862

Elkhorn Tavern     Pea Ridge

April 6–7, 1862

Shiloh     Pittsburg Landing

May 31 – June 1, 1862

Seven Pines     Fair Oaks

June 26, 1862

Mechanicsville     Battle of Beaver Dam Creek

June 27, 1862

Gaines's Mill     Chickahominy River

August 29–30, 1862

Second Manassas     Second Bull Run

September 1, 1862

Ox Hill     Chantilly

September 14, 1862

Boonsboro     South Mountain

September 14, 1862

Burkittsville     Crampton's Gap

September 17, 1862

Sharpsburg     Antietam

October 8, 1862

Perryville     Chaplin Hills

December 31, 1862 –
January 2, 1863

Murfreesboro     Stones River

April 8, 1864

Mansfield     Sabine Cross Roads

September 19, 1864

Winchester     Opequon

See also Top Ten Civil War Battles in Casualties: Killed, Wounded, Missing, and Captured.

List of Major Civil War Battles
 
While many historians and Civil War buffs quote that the Civil War and its long list of battles caused more deaths than all previous U.S. wars combined, it was actually the short list of Top Ten Deadliest Battles of the Civil War, collectively, that killed more Americans than all previous U.S. wars combined. See also Lists of Total Union and Confederate Casualties by Category and Classification.
 
List of Notable American Families Representing the Confederacy and the Union
(aka List of Famous Civil War People)
 
PRESIDENT LINCOLN, the Commander-In-Chief of the Union Army, had four brothers-in-law in the Confederate Army, and three of his sisters-in-law were married to Confederate officers.
 
JEFFERSON DAVIS, Commander-in-Chief of the Confederate Army, served the U.S. Army as a colonel during the Mexican War and held the post of Secretary of War in President Pierce's cabinet. Previously, as a senior United States Senator, he had been Chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee. Lincoln and Davis were born in Kentucky, the only state that has ever had two of its sons serve as President at the same time.

JOHN TYLER, 10th President of the United States, was elected to the Confederate States Congress in 1862, but died before it convened. On March 4, 1861, Tyler's granddaughter unfurled the first flag of the Confederacy when it was raised over the Confederate Capitol at Montgomery, Alabama.

The Battle of Lynchburg, Virginia, in June 1864 brought together two future Presidents of the United States—General RUTHERFORD B. HAYES and Major WILLIAM McKINLEY, U.S.A.—and a former Vice-President—General JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, C.S.A. Five other Union generals later rose to the Presidency: ANDREW JOHNSON, U.S. GRANT, JAMES A. GARFIELD, CHESTER A. ARTHUR, and BENJAMIN HARRISON.

The four Secretaries of War during the eleven years prior to the Civil War were all from the South. All four later held office in the Confederate government.

Fourteen of the 26 Confederate Senators had previously served in the United States Congress. In the Confederate House of Representatives, 33 members were former U.S. Congressmen.

Confederate Generals ROBERT E. LEE and P.G.T. BEAUREGARD both ranked second in their graduating classes at West Point, and both officers later returned to hold the position of Superintendent of the Academy. Lee's appointment to the rank of full colonel in the United States Army was signed by President Lincoln.

In 1859 WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN was appointed the first president of what is today the Louisiana State University. Although his chief claim to fame was the destructive "March to the Sea", a portrait of the Union general occupies a prominent place in the Memorial Tower of this Southern university.

Over one-fourth of the West Point graduates who fought during the Civil War were in the Confederate Army. Half of the 304 who served in Gray were on active duty in the United States Army when war broke out. Of the total number of West Pointers who went South, 148 were promoted to the rank of general officer. In all, 313 of the 1,098 officers in the United States Army joined the Confederacy.

List of Civil War comparisons between North & South
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List of Comparisons between Union and Confederate states

(Above) List of Civil War Era Comparisons between the North and South

One fourth of the officers in the United States Navy resigned to cast their lot with the Confederate Navy. Of the 322 who resigned, 243 were line officers.

When J.E.B. STUART raided Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in 1862, he was pursued by Federal cavalry under the command of his father-in-law, Brig. Gen. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COOKE, whose name is frequently confused with that of Confederate General PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE, both West Pointers. As if that weren't bad enough, there was a Union general by the name of JEFFERSON DAVIS.

WILLIAM T. MAGRUDER (U.S.M.A. 1850) commanded a squadron of the 1st United States Cavalry at First Manassas and during the Peninsula Campaign. In August 1862 he was granted leave of absence, and two months later he switched loyalties to join the Confederate Army. On July 3, 1863, he fell during the famous charge at Gettysburg.

The Virginia Military Institute graduated WILLIAM H. GILLESPIE in the special war class of 1862. While awaiting his appointment as an officer on "Stonewall" Jackson's staff, he deserted to the Union Army and became Adjutant of the 14th West Virginia Cavalry.

If Blue and Gray didn't meet again at Gettysburg during the annual reunions, they at least met on the banks of the Nile. No less than 50 former Union and Confederate officers held the rank of colonel or above in the Army of the Khedive during the 1870's. Two ex-Confederate generals and three former Union officers attained the rank of general in the Egyptian Army, holding such positions as Chief of Staff, Chief of Engineers, and Chief Ordnance Officer.

Only three Confederates ever held the rank of general in the United States Army following the Civil War—MATTHEW C. BUTLER, FITZHUGH LEE, and JOE WHEELER. Lee and Wheeler, though they served as generals in the Confederate Army as well as in the United States Army during the Spanish American War, both graduated at the bottom of their West Point classes. When Lee and Wheeler were promoted to major general in 1901, their commissions were signed by a former Yankee officer—President William McKinley.

General GEORGE PICKETT, a native Virginian, was appointed to the United States Military Academy from the State of Illinois. John Todd Stuart obtained the appointment at the request of his law partner, Abraham Lincoln.

The senior general in the Confederate Army, SAMUEL COOPER, hailed from New York. Before the war, he had been Adjutant General of the United States Army. From 1861 to 1865 he was the Adjutant and Inspector General of the Confederate Army.

Fort Sumter was surrendered in 1861 by a Kentucky-born Union officer, Major ROBERT ANDERSON. Confederate General JOHN C. PEMBERTON, a Pennsylvanian by birth, surrendered Vicksburg in 1863. There was no collusion in either surrender; both men were loyal supporters of their respective causes.

The first Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy, Commodore FRANKLIN BUCHANAN, commanded the C.S.S. Virginia (Merrimac) in its first engagement. On the first ship to surrender under the Virginia's guns was Buchanan's brother, an officer of the U.S. Navy.

Major CLIFTON PRENTISS of the 6th Maryland Infantry (Union) and his younger brother WILLIAM, of the 2nd Maryland Infantry (Confederate), were both mortally wounded when their regiments clashed at Petersburg on April 2, 1865—just seven days before hostilities ceased. Both were removed from the battlefield and after a separation of four years, they were taken to the same hospital in Washington. Each fought and each died for his cause.

Order of Secession of Southern States List
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(Map) Order that Southern states seceded and were subsequently readmitted into the Union

(Above) List of States that Seceded from the Union, as well as the Dates that Each State was Readmitted into the Union. During the Civil War, western Virginia seceded (broke) from Virginia, and formed the State of West Virginia. Nevada, previously the Territory of Nevada (aka Nevada Territory), was the second state born during the Civil War. The last shall be first. While the State of Nevada was formed late and last during the Civil War, it was the wealthiest per capita State in the Union, contributing $400,000,000 in silver to the Union war effort.

List of Civil War Era Americans with Interesting Facts
(aka List of Notable Civil War Persons)

Poet SIDNEY LANIER fought as a private in the 2nd Georgia Battalion during the Seven Days' Battles near Richmond. In November 1862 he was captured on a Confederate blockade-runner and imprisoned at Point Lookout, Maryland. Sixteen years after the war he died from tuberculosis contracted while in prison.

New England poet ALBERT PIKE commanded the Confederate Department of Indian Territory. He wrote the stanzas of the popular Southern version of Dixie, a tune which originated not in the South, but in New York City during the 1850's.

At the battle of the Monocacy in 1864 Union General LEW WALLACE, author of Ben-Hur, commanded the force defending Washington against General Jubal Early's attack. After the war he served as Governor of New Mexico and Minister to Turkey.

When the Marion Rangers organized in 1861, SAMUEL CLEMENS (Mark Twain) joined as a lieutenant, but he left this Missouri Company before it was mustered into Confederate service, having fired only one hostile shot during the war.

Confederate Private HENRY MORTON STANLEY, of "Doctor Livingstone, I presume" fame, survived a bloody charge at Shiloh only to be taken prisoner. Later he joined the Union ranks and finished the war in Yankee blue.

ANDREW CARNEGIE was a young man in his mid-twenties when he left his position as superintendent of the Pittsburgh Division, Pennsylvania Railroad to pitch in with workers rebuilding the rail line from Annapolis to Washington. Later in 1861 he was given the position of superintendent of military railways and government telegraph.

HENRY A. DUPONT, grandson of the DuPont industries founder, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry at the battle of Cedar Creek in October 1864. Captain DuPont, who had graduated from West Point at the head of his class in 1861, went on to serve as United States Senator from Delaware.

ELIAS HOWE presented each field and staff officer of the 5th Massachusetts Regiment with a stallion fully equipped for service. Later, he volunteered as a private, and when the State failed to pay his unit, he met the regimental payroll with his own money.

At the age of 15 GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE ran away from home and joined the Union Army. Neither he nor Elias Howe rose to officer rank, but both are today in the Hall of Fame for their achievements—the air brake and the sewing machine.

Formation of the Civil War Regiment
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List of Soldiers that Formed the Infantry Regiment. Fox, William F.

In 1861 CORNELIUS VANDERBILT presented a high-speed side-wheel steamer to the United States Navy. At the time, there were less than 50 ships in active naval service. The cruiser, named the Vanderbilt, captured three blockade-runners during the war and in 1865 participated in the bombardment and amphibious assault on Fort Fisher. The Federal Navy at that time had grown to a fleet of more than 550 steam-powered ships.

Admiral GEORGE DEWEY, of Manila Bay fame, served as a young lieutenant under Admiral Farragut during the attack on Port Hudson in 1863. His ship was the only one lost in the engagement.

Colonel CHRISTOPHER C. ("Kit") CARSON commanded the 1st New Mexico Volunteers (Union), and campaigned against the Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians during the Civil War. In 1866 he was promoted to brigadier general.

In his mid-teens JESSE JAMES joined the Confederate raiders led by William Quantrill. The famous "Dead or alive" reward for Jesse in 1882 was issued by an ex-Confederate officer, Governor Thomas T. Crittenden of Missouri.

List of Civil War Battles by Year

Of the 2.3 million men enlisted in the Union Army, seventy percent were under 23 years of age. Approximately 100,000 were 16 and an equal number 15. Three hundred lads were 13 or less, and the records show that there were 25 no older than 10 years.

The average infantry regiment of 10 companies consisted of 30 line officers and 1300 men. However, by the time a new regiment reached the battlefield, it would often have less than 800 men available for combat duty. Sickness and details as cooks, teamsters, servants, and clerks accounted for the greatly reduced numbers. Actually, in many of the large battles the regimental fighting strength averaged no more than 480 men.

In 1864 the basic daily ration for a Union soldier was (in ounces): 20—beef, 18—flour, 2.56—dry beans, 1.6—green coffee, 2.4—sugar, .64—salt, and smaller amounts of pepper, yeast powder, soap, candles, and vinegar. While campaigning, soldiers seldom obtained their full ration and many had to forage for subsistence.

In the Army of Northern Virginia in 1863 the rations available for every 100 Confederate soldiers over a 30-day period consisted of 1/4 lb. of bacon, 18 oz. of flour, 10 lbs. of rice, and a small amount of peas and dried fruit—when they could be obtained. (It is little wonder that Lee elected to carry the war into Pennsylvania—if for no other reason than to obtain food for an undernourished army.)

During the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862 "Stonewall" Jackson marched his force of 16,000 men more than 600 miles in 35 days. Five major battles were fought and four separate Union armies, totaling 63,000, were defeated.

In June 1864, the U.S.S. Kearsarge sank the C.S.S. Alabama in a fierce engagement in the English Channel off Cherbourg, France. Frenchmen gathered along the beach to witness the hour-long duel, which inspired a young French artist, Edouard Manet, to paint the battle scene that now hangs in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

The Confederate cruiser Shenandoah sailed completely around the world raiding Union commerce vessels and whalers. The ship and crew surrendered to British authorities at Liverpool in November 1865, seven months after Lee's surrender at Appomattox.

The greatest naval bombardment during the war was on Christmas Eve, 1864, at Fort Fisher, North Carolina. Fifty-seven vessels, with a total of 670 guns, were engaged—the largest fleet ever assembled by the U.S. Navy up to that time. The Army, Navy, and Marines combined in a joint operation to reduce and capture the fort.

In July, 1862 the first Negro troops of the Civil War were organized by General David Hunter. Known as the 1st South Carolina Regiment, they were later designated the 33rd Regiment United States Colored Troops. Some 186,000 Negro soldiers served in the Union Army, 4,300 of whom became battle casualties.

At the battle of Fredericksburg in 1862, the line of Confederate trenches extended a distance of seven miles. The troop density in these defensive works was 11,000 per mile.

The Unknown List
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Because there were no dog tags during the Civil War, many dead soldiers were listed as "unknown"

Over 900 guns and mortars bristled from the 68 forts defending the Nation's Capital during the war. The fortifications, constructed by the Engineer Corps during the early part of the war, circled the city on a 37-mile perimeter.

During Sherman's campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta, the Union Army of the Tennessee, in a period of four months, constructed over 300 miles of rifle pits, fired 149,670 artillery rounds and 22,137,132 rounds of small-arms ammunition.

To fire a Civil War musket, eleven separate motions had to be made. The regulation in the 1860's specified that a soldier should fire three aimed shots per minute, allowing 20 seconds per shot and less than two seconds per motion.

At the battle of Stone's River, Tennessee, in January, 1863, the Federal infantry in three days exhausted over 2,000,000 rounds of ammunition, and the artillery fired 20,307 rounds. The total weight of the projectiles was in excess of 375,000 pounds.

At the Battle of First Bull Run or Manassas, it has been estimated that between 8,000 and 10,000 bullets were fired for every man killed and wounded.

The campaign against Petersburg, the longest sustained operation of the war, began in the summer of 1864 and lasted for 10 months, until the spring of '65. The fighting covered an area of more than 170 square miles, with 35 miles of trenches and fortifications stretching from Richmond to the southwest of Petersburg. During September, 1864, nearly 175 field and siege guns poured forth a daily average of 7.8 tons of iron on the Confederate works.

The greatest cavalry battle in the history of the western hemisphere was fought at Brandy Station, Virginia, on June 9, 1863. Nearly 20,000 cavalrymen were engaged for more than 12 hours. At the height of the battle, along Fleetwood Hill, charges and countercharges were made continuously for almost three hours.

Just days before President Lincoln's assassination
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Sherman, Grant, Lincoln, and Porter aboard the River Queen on March 27th & March 28th, 1865.

The greatest regimental loss of the entire war was borne by the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery. The unit saw no action until 1864, but in the short span of less than one year, over half of its 2,202 men engaged in battle were hit. In the assault on Petersburg in June, 1864, the regiment lost 604 men killed and wounded in less than 20 minutes.

The largest regimental loss in a single battle was suffered by the 26th North Carolina Infantry at Gettysburg. The regiment went into battle with a little over 800 men, and by the end of the third day, 708 were dead, wounded, or missing. In one company of 84, every officer and man was hit.

Of the 46 Confederate regiments that went into the famous charge at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, 15 were commanded by General Pickett. Thirteen of his regiments were led by Virginia Military Institute graduates; only two of them survived the charge.

The heaviest numerical loss during any single battle was at Gettysburg, where 40,322 Americans were killed or wounded. On the Union side 21 percent of those engaged were killed or wounded, in the Confederate ranks 30 percent—the largest percentage of Confederates hit in any battle. The largest percentage of Union soldiers hit in battle was at Port Hudson in May 1863, where 26.7 percent of those engaged were killed or wounded.

During May and June 1864 the Armies of the Potomac and the James lost 77,452 men—a greater number than Lee had in his entire army.

Union Army hospitals treated over 6 million cases during the war. There were twice as many deaths from disease as from hostile bullets. Diarrhea and dysentery alone took the lives of 44,558 Union soldiers.

From 1861-1865 the Quartermaster Corps of the Union Army made 116,148 burials.

In the 79 National Civil War cemeteries, 54 percent of the graves are those of unknown soldiers. The largest Civil War cemetery is at Vicksburg, where 16,000 soldiers rest; only 3,896 are known. At the Confederate prison site in Salisbury, North Carolina, where 12,126 Union soldiers are buried, 99 percent are unknown.

 
Civil War casualties were defined as soldiers who were unaccounted for or unavailable for service. Casualties included killed in action, mortally wounded, wounded, missing, died of disease, died as a prisoner-of-war, died of causes other than battle, captured, and deserted. On the other hand, fatalities only included soldiers who were killed in action, mortally wounded, and died of disease or from other causes. Civil War statisticians had a strict application of the words, killed, died, dead, and deaths. Furthermore, casualties included fatalities, while fatalities did not include all casualties. Casualty has been, by many, erroneously interchanged with fatality. See also Total Civil War killed and dead by category for each Union and Confederate state.
 
The primary cause of battle deaths and wounds was from the firearm known as the small arm. Although one in four Civil War soldiers never returned home, one in thirteen soldiers became an amputee. Even though amputation was the wounded soldier's best friend, one in four amputees died principally as a result of gangrene. While gangrene was the number one cause of death for amputees, amputation was, nevertheless, the wounded soldier's principal means of survival. Amputation had to be performed quickly, however, within 48 hours, to inhibit blood poisoning, bone infection, or gangrene. A soldier who had his forearm amputated had a survival rate of 76%, while amputation at the hip joint witnessed a survival rate of merely 12%.

List of Total Civil War Deaths, Killed, and Died
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Fox, Union List of Total Civil War Dead by Category and Cause. Union

North South[1]
Population 22,400,000 9,103,000[2]
Military Age Group (18-45) 4,600,000 985,000
Trained Militia 1827-1861 2,470,000 692,000
Regular Army January, 1861 16,400 0
Military Potential 1861 2,486,400 692,000
Total Individuals in Service 1861-1865 2,213,400 1,003,600
Total Strength July, 1861 219,400 114,000
Total Strength January, 1863 962,300 450,200
Peak Strength 1864-1865 1,044,660 484,800
Army 980,100 481,200
Navy 60,700 3,000
Marines 3,860 600
Total Hit in Battle 385,100 320,000
Total Battle Deaths 110,100 94,000
Killed in Battle 67,100 54,000
Died of Wounds 43,000 40,000
Wounded (not mortally)[3] 275,000 226,000
Missing in Action 6,750 —-
Captured[4] 211,400 462,000
Died in Prison 30,200 26,000
Died of Disease 224,000 60,000
Other Deaths 34,800 —-
Desertions[5] 199,000 83,400
Discharged 426,500 57,800
Surrendered 1865 174,223
[1] Confederate figures are based upon the best information and estimates available, because many Confederate records were destroyed, inaccurate, or missing. See also Total Civil War killed and dead by category for each Union and Confederate state.
[2] Includes 3,760,000 slaves in the seceded states.
[3] A number of these were returned to duty. In the Union Army, those who were not fit for combat were placed in the Veteran Reserve Corps and performed administrative duties.
[4] An undetermined number were exchanged and returned to duty.
[5] Many deserters returned to duty. In the Union Army, where $300 bounty was paid for a 3-year enlistment, it was not uncommon to find a soldier picking up his bounty in one regiment and then deserting to join another unit just for the additional bounty.

List of Total Civil War Soldiers and Total Dead
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List of Civil War Killed all causes by states, including Whites, Navy, Marines, Coloreds, Indians

(Above) Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (1908). Dyer, who spent forty years compiling statistics for every Union unit, remains the most cited Civil War statistician with his exhaustive work still appreciated by many scholars, historians, and authors. At first glance Dyer's study may give the impression of data and dates sandwiched between thick volumes, but it is actually a richly prepared history of the units that served and fought during the conflict. Dyer also indicates comparative percentages, total killed by state, cause of death, and grand total deaths. Dyer, like most statisticians of the war, only stated and applied the word killed when the soldier was killed in action or mortally wounded. Total deaths, on the other hand, included killed in action, mortally wounded, died of disease, died while in prison, deaths other than battle, or deaths from causes other than battle, and often missing in action. The reader should therefore take note of the application of Total Civil War Killed and Total Civil War Deaths. The majority of Civil War soldiers, Union and Confederate, died by disease, making it the major cause of death during the four year conflict. Notice that Dyer also includes Native Americans, African Americans, and Navy and Marines -- categories that were often ignored. The list represents the Union military only, with Dyer and many others conceding that Confederate Military and Casualty Totals for Each Southern State was more complex due to lack of records. Dyer and fellow statistician Fox, William F. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War (1889), both have identical totals for each category. While the numbers are the same, Fox, however, expands on some of the categories. For example, both statisticians indicate "Veteran Volunteers, Total Deaths All Causes 106," but Fox adds a notation indicating that the losses were all from Hancock's Corps.

List of Civil War Battles with Losses in Killed, Wounded, and Missing in Actions, Etc.

Civil War prisoner-of-war
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List of soldiers who died as prisoners was exhaustive

The following List of Civil War Battles with Losses in Killed, Wounded, and Missing in Engagements, Etc., includes losses of five hundred or more on the side of the Union, while Confederate Losses given are generally based on Estimates.

Union Loss. Confederate Loss.
No. Date. Name. Killed Wounded Missing Total. Total.
1861.
1 July 21 Bull Run, Va. 481 1,011 1,460 2,952 1,752
2 August 10 Wilson's Creek, Mo. 223 721 291 1,235 1,095
3 September 12 to 20 Lexington, Mo. 42 108 1,624 1,774 100
4 October 21 Ball's Bluff, Va. 223 226 445 894 302
5 November 7 Belmont, Mo. 90 173 235 498 966
1862.
6 February 14 to 16 Fort Donelson, Tenn. 446 1,735 150 2,331 15,067
7 March 6 to 8 Pea Ridge, Ark. 203 972 174 1,349 5,200
8 March 14 New-Berne, N. C. 91 466 557 583
9 March 23 Winchester, Va. 103 440 24 567 691
10 April 6 and 7 Shiloh, Tenn. 1,735 7,882 3,956 13,573 10,699
11 May 5 Williamsburg, Va. 456 1,400 372 2,228 1,000
12 May 23 Front Royal, Va. 32 122 750 904
13 May 25 Winchester, Va. 38 155 711 904
14 May 31 to June 1 Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, Va. 890 3,627 1,222 5,739 7,997
15 June 8 Cross Keys, Va. 125 500 625 287
16 June 9 Fort Republic, Va. 67 361 574 1,002 657
17 June 16 Secessionville, James Island, S. C. 85 472 128 685 204
18 June 25 Oak Grove, Va. 51 401 64 516 541
19 June 26 to July 1 Seven days' retreat; includes Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mills, Chickahominy, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Charles City Cross Roads, and Malvern Hill 1,582 7,709 5,958 15,249 17,583
20 July 13 Murfreesboro', Tenn. 33 62 800 895 150
21 August 8 Cedar Mountain, Va. 450 660 290 1,400 1,307
22 July 20 to September 20 Guerrilla campaign in Missouri; includes Porter's and Poindexter's Guerrillas 77 156 347 580 2,866
23 August 28 and 29 Groveton and Gainesville, Va. 7,000 7,000
24 August 30 Bull Run, Va. (2d) 800 4,000 3,000 7,800 3,700
25 August 30 Richmond Ky. 200 700 4,000 4,900 750
26 September 1 Chantilly, Va. 1,300 800
27 September 12 to 15 Harper's Ferry, Va. 80 120 11,583 11,783 500
28 September 14 Turner's and Crampton's Gaps, South Mountain, Md. 443 1,806 76 2,325 4,343
29 September 14 to 16 Munfordsville Ky. 50 3,566 3,616 714
30 September 17 Antietam, Md. 2,010 9,416 1,043 12,469 25,899
31 September 19 to 20 Iuka, Miss. 144 598 40 782 1,516
32 October 3 and 4 Corinth, Miss. 315 1,812 232 2,359 14,221
33 October 5 Big Hatchie River, Miss. 500 400
34 October 8 Perryville, Ky. 916 2,943 489 4,348 7,000
35 December 7 Prairie Grove, Ark. 167 798 183 1,148 1,500
36 December 7 Hartsville, Tenn. 55 1,800 1,855 149
37 December 12 to 18 Foster's expedition to Goldsboro', N.C. 90 478 9 577 739
38 December 13 Fredericksburg, Va. 1,180 9,028 2,145 12,353 4,576
39 December 20 Holly Springs, Miss. 1,000 1,000
40 December 27 Elizabethtown, Ky. 500 500
41 December 28 and 29 Chickasaw Bayou, Vicksburg, Miss. 191 982 756 1,929 207
42 Dec. 31, 1862, to Jan. 2, 1863 Stone's River, Tenn. 1,533 7,245 2,800 11,578 25,560
1863.
43 January 1 Galveston, Texas 600 600 50
44 January 11 Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, Ark. 129 831 17 977 5,500
45 March 4 and 5 Thompson's Station, Tenn. 100 300 1,306 1,706 600
46 April 27 to May 3 Streight's raid from Tuscumbia, Ala., to Rome, Ga. 12 69 1,466 1,547
47 May 1 Port Gibson, Miss. 130 718 5 853 1,650
48 May 1 to 4 Chancellorsville, Va. 1,512 9,518 5,000 16,030 12,281
49 May 16 Champion Mills, Miss. 426 1,842 189 2,457 4,300
50 May 18 to July 4 Siege of Vicksburg, Miss. 545 3,688 303 4,536 31,277
51 May 27 to July 9 Siege of Port Hudson, La. 500 2,500 3,000 7,208
52 June 6 to 8 Milliken's Bend, La. 154 223 115 492 725
53 June 9 Beverly Ford and Brandy Station, Va. 500 700
54 June 13 to 15 Winchester, Va. 3,000 3,000 850
55 June 23 to 30 Rosecrans' campaign from Murfreesboro' to Tullahoma, Tenn. 85 462 13 560 1,634
56 July 1 to 3 Gettysburg, Pa. 2,834 13,709 6,643 23,186 31,621
57 July 9 to 16 Jackson, Miss. 100 800 100 1,000 1,339
58 July 18 Second assault on Fort Wagner, S. C 1,500 174[68]
59 September 19 to 20 Chickamauga, Ga. 1,644 9,262 4,945 15,851 17,804
60 November 3 Grand Coteau, La. 26 124 576 726 445
61 November 6 Rogersville, Tenn. 5 12 650 667 30
62 November 23 to 25 Chattanooga, Tenn.; includes Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge. 757 4,529 330 5,616 8,684
63 November 26 to 28 Operations at Mine Run, Va. 100 400 500 500
64 December 14 Bean's Station, Tenn. 700 900
1864.
65 February 20 Olustee, Fla. 193 1,175 460 1,828 500
66 April 8 Sabine Cross Roads, La. 200 900 1,800 2,900 1,500
67 April 9 Pleasant Hills, La. 100 700 300 1,100 2,000
68 April 12 Fort Pillow, Tenn. 350 60 164 574 80
69 April 17 to 20 Plymouth, N. C. 20 80 1,500 1,600 500
70 April 30 Jenkins' Ferry, Saline River, Ark. 200 955 1,155 1,100
71 May 5 to 7 Wilderness, Va. 5,597 21,463 10,677 37,737 11,400
72 May 5 to 9 Rocky Face Ridge, Ga.; includes Tunnel Hill, Mill Creek Gap, Buzzard Roost, Snake Creek Gap, and near Dalton 200 637 837 600
73 May 8 to 18 Spottsylvania Court House, Va.; includes engagements on the Fredericksburg Road, Laurel Hill, and Nye River 4,177 19,687 2,577 26,461 9,000
74 May 9 to 10 Swift Creek, Va. 90 400 490 500
75 May 9 to 10 Cloyd's Mountain and New River Bridge, Va. 126 585 34 745 900
76 May 12 to 16 Fort Darling, Drewry's Bluff, Va. 422 2,380 210 3,012 2,500
77 May 13 to 16 Resaca, Ga. 600 2,147 2,747 2,800
78 May 15 New Market, Va. 120 560 240 920 405
79 May 16 to 30 Bermuda Hundred, Va. 200 1,000 1,200 3,000
80 May 23 to 27 North Anna River, Va. 223 1,460 290 1,973 2,000
81 May 25 to June 4 Dallas, Ga. 2,400 3,000
82 June 1 to 12 Cold Harbor, Va. 1,905 10,570 2,456 14,931 1,700
83 June 5 Piedmont, Va. 130 650 780 2,970
84 June 9 to 30 Kenesaw Mountain, Ga.; includes Pine Mountain, Pine Knob, Golgotha, Culp's House, general assault, June 27th: McAfee's Cross Roads, Lattemore's Mills and Powder Springs 1,370 6,500 800 8,670 4,600
85 June 10 Brice's Cross Roads, near Guntown, Miss. 223 394 1,623 2,240 606
86 June 10 Kellar's Bridge, Licking River, Ky. 13 54 700 767
87 June 11 and 12 Trevellian Station, Central Railroad, Va. 85 490 160 735 370
88 June 15 to 19 Petersburg, Va.; includes Baylor's Farm, Walthal, and Weir Bottom Church 1,298 7,474 1,814 10,586
89 June 17 and 18 Lynchburg, Va. 100 500 400 700 200
90 June 20 to 30 Trenches in front of Petersburg, Va. 112 506 800 1,418
91 June 22 to 30 Wilson's raid on the Weldon Railroad, Va. 76 265 700 1,041 300
92 June 22 and 23 Weldon Railroad, Va. 604 2,494 2,217 5,315 500
93 June 27 Kenesaw Mountain, general assault. See No. 2,345 3,000 608
94 July 1 to 31 Front of Petersburg, Va.; losses at the Crater and Deep Bottom not included 419 2,076 1,200 3,695
95 July 6 to 10 Chattahoochee River, Ga. 80 450 200 730 600
96 July 9 Monocacy, Md. 90 579 1,290 1,959 400
97 July 13 to 15 Tupelo, Miss.; includes Harrisburg and Old Town Creek 85 563 648 700
98 July 20 Peach Tree Creek, Ga. 300 1,410 1,710 4,796
99 July 22 Atlanta, Ga.; Hood's first sortie 500 2,141 1,000 3,641 8,499
100 July 24 Winchester, Va. 1,200 600
101 July 26 to 31 Stoneman's raid to Macon, Ga. 100 900 1,000
102 July 26 to 31 McCook's raid to Lovejoy Station, Ga. 100 500 600
103 July 28 Ezra Chapel, Atlanta, Ga.; second sortie. 100 600 700 4,642
104 July 30 Mine explosion at Petersburg, Va. 419 1,679 1,910 4,008 1,200
105 August 1 to 31 Trenches before Petersburg, Va. 87 484 571
106 August 14 to 18 Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom Run, Va. 400 1,755 1,400 3,555 1,100
107 August 18, 19 & 21 Six Mile House, Weldon Railroad, Va. 212 1,155 3,176 4,543 4,000
108 August 21 Summit Point, Va. 600 400
109 August 25 Ream's Station, Va. 127 546 1,769 2,442 1,500
110 August 31 to September 1 Jonesboro', Ga. 1,149 1,149 2,000
111 May 5 to September 8 Campaign in Northern Georgia, from Chattanooga, Tenn., to Atlanta, Ga. 5,284 26,129 5,786 37,199
112 September 1 to October 30 Trenches before Petersburg, Va. 170 822 812 1,804 1,000
113 September 19 Opequan, Winchester, Va. 653 3,719 618 4,990 5,500
114 September 23 Athens, Ala. 950 950 30
115 September 24 to October 28 Price's invasion of Missouri; includes a number of engagements 170 336 506
116 September 28 to 30 New Market Heights, Va. 400 2,029 2,429 2,000
117 September 30 to October 1 Preble's Farm, Poplar Springs Church, Va. 141 788 1,756 2,685 900
118 October 5 Allatoona, Ga. 142 352 212 706 1,142[69]
119 October 19 Cedar Creek, Va. 588 3,516 1,891 5,995 4,200
120 October 27 Hatcher's Run, South Side Railroad, Va. 156 1,047 699 1,902 1,000
121 October 27 and 28 Fair Oaks, near Richmond, Va. 120 783 400 1,303 451
122 November 28 Fort Kelly, New Creek, West Va. 700 700 5
123 November 30 Franklin, Tenn. 189 1,033 1,104 2,326 6,252
124 November 30 Honey Hill, Broad River, S. C. 66 645 711
125 December 6 to 9 Deveaux's Neck, S. C. 39 390 200 629 400
126 December 15 & 16 Nashville, Tenn. 400 1,740 2,140 15,000
1865.
127 January 11 Beverly, West Va. 5 20 583 608
128 January 13 to 15 Fort Fisher, N. C. 184 749 22 955 2,483
129 February 5 to 7 Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, Va. 232 1,062 186 1,480 1,200
130 March 8 to 10 Wilcox's Bridge, Wise's Fork, N. C. 80 421 600 1,101 1,500
131 March 16 Averysboro', N. C. 77 477 554 865
132 March 19 to 21 Bentonville, N. C. 191 1,168 287 1,646 2,825
133 March 25 Fort Steedman, in front of Petersburg, VA. 68 337 506 911 2,681
134 March 25 Petersburg, Va. 103 864 209 1,176 834
135 March 26 to April 8 Spanish Fort, Ala. 100 695 795 552
136 March 22 to April 24 Wilson's raid from Chickasaw, Ala., to Macon, Ga.; includes a number of engagements 99 598 28 725 8,020
137 March 31 Boydton and White Oak Roads, Va. 177 1,134 556 1,867 1,235
138 April 1 Five Forks, Va. 124 706 54 884 8,500
139 April 2 Fall of Petersburg, Va. 296 2,565 500 3,361 3,000
140 April 6 Sailor's Creek, Va. 166 1,014 1,180 7,000
141 April 6 High Bridge, Appomattox River, Va. 10 31 1,000 1,041
142 April 7 Farmville, Va. 655
143 April 9 Fort Blakely, Ala. 113 516 629 2,900
144 April 9 Surrender of Lee 26,000
145 April 26 Johnston surrendered 29,924
146 May 4 Taylor surrendered 10,000
147 May 10 Sam Jones surrendered 8,000
148 May 11 Jeff Thompson surrendered 7,454
149 May 26 Kirby Smith surrendered 20,000

List of Major Events and Battles in the Several States and Territories during each Year of the Civil War.
 
Civil War skirmishes and small scale engagements were not included in the following list. On the other hand, an event, such as trying to burn a city, was included.

Confederate capital of Richmond in ruins in 1865
Burning of Richmond, VA., 1865.jpg
Both capitals, Richmond and Washington, were a mere 100 miles apart.

(Above) Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia, in ruins in 1865. Because both Union and Confederate capitals were a mere 100 miles apart, it resulted in more major battles being contested in Virginia than any other state. As the war progressed, the Union strategy evolved. Initially, however, many in Washington believed that it could blockade the Southern coasts and ports and practically starve the South into submission. Blockades were not only costly to enforce, but with extensive coastlines, such as the Southern coast, they were virtually ineffective in starving or defeating an enemy. Northern strategy therefore evolved and that meant mobilizing massive armies and advancing them into the heart of the Confederacy. Since the headquarters of Dixie remained at Richmond for most of the Civil War, that made it the principal target for many Union strategists and generals. But while the Northern troops advanced on Richmond, they remained cognizant that their own capital was now a target. Unlike his predecessors who had retreated from the determined Lee and his Confederates in Virginia, Grant assumed command of all the Union forces and too was determined to pursue his nemesis, Lee, at all cost. In the summer of 1864, the opposing armies dug trenches (precursors to WWI) in what became known as the Richmond-Petersburg Siege (aka Richmond-Petersburg Campaign). The siege lasted nearly 10 months, when Lee, and his starving Confederates, attempted a break through and break out. It faltered however, because Lee's starving force had dwindled to 50,000 while Grant, with nearly 100,000 men, had Sheridan's main body advancing from the valley with an additional 50,000 Union soldiers and cavalry to assist, and Sherman, too, concluding his March to the Sea, was marching toward Lee with his large Union force of 89,000. Three massive Union armies were now converging on Lee's battered Confederates. Consequently, Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865, thus ending the bloodiest war in the nation's history.

Beneath the unfinished dome of the Capitol
Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln,.jpg
Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1861, beneath the unfinished dome of the Capitol

States and Territories 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 Total
New York 1 1
Pennsylvania 8 1 9
Maryland 3 9 10 8 30
Dist. of Columbia 1 1
West Virginia 29 114 17 19 1 80
Virginia 30 40 116 205 28 519
North Carolina 2 27 18 10 28 85
South Carolina 2 10 17 9 22 60
Georgia 2 8 92 6 108
Florida 3 3 4 17 5 32
Alabama 10 12 32 24 78
Mississippi 42 76 67 1 186
Louisiana 1 11 54 50 2 118
Texas 1 2 8 1 2 14
Arkansas 1 42 40 78 6 167
Tennessee 2 82 124 89 1 298
Kentucky 14 59 30 31 4 138
Ohio 3 3
Indiana 4 4
Illinois 1 1
Missouri 65 95 43 41 244
Minnesota 5 1 6
California 1 4 1 6
Kansas 2 5 7
Oregon 3 1 4
Nevada 2 2
Washington Ter. 1 1
Utah 1 1
New Mexico 3 5 7 4 19
Nebraska 2 2
Colorado 4 4
Indian Territory 2 9 3 3 17
Dakota 2 5 4 11
Arizona 1 1 1 1 4
Idaho 1 1
156 564 627 779 135 2,261

List of the Costs of Civil War

Cost of Civil War
Civil War amputated limbs and legs.jpg
Amputated limbs, legs, and feet

From 1861-1865 it cost the United States government approximately 2 million dollars a day to prosecute the war; the Second World War cost more than 113 million dollars a day.

In 1866, 20% of Mississippi’s entire state budget went to the procurement of artificial limbs, and, from 1871 to 1873, 3,929 Tennesseans filed claims with the Southern Claims Commission. They claimed that their property had been taken by the U.S. military for use during the Civil War. Immediately following the conflict, approximately 80,000 Alabama widows requested state assistance, while thousands of additional widows didn't request any aid. Prior to the Civil War, in 1860, there were 69,000 farms in North Carolina and 46,000 of these, or 71%, were less than 100 acres in size. In 1860 there were only 300 plantations of 1,000 acres or more in the state. The 1860 census listed 121 planters and 85,198 farmers. North Carolina has a long history of small farms, and cutting trees for fence rails was a major cause of forest destruction. The Civil War bankrupted most industries in the Old North State, including agriculture.

In 1880 the Secretary of the Treasury reported that the Civil War had cost the Federal government 6.19 billion dollars. By 1910 the cost of the war, including pensions and other veterans benefits, had reached 11.5 billion dollars. World War II was three months shorter than the Civil War, but from 1942-1945 approximately 156 billion dollars was spent on the military establishment.

The total cost of the war to the South has been estimated at 4 billion dollars.

The public debt outstanding for an average population of 33 million rose from $2.80 to $75 per capita between 1861 and 1865. In mid-1958 the per capita debt stood at $1,493 for a population of 175.5 million.

In 1958 the government was providing pensions for 3,042 widows of Union veterans. In June of that year, as a result of special legislation, 526 widows of Southern soldiers and the two surviving Confederate veterans became eligible for Federal pensions. The last Union veteran, Albert Woolson, had died in 1956, leaving the two Confederates, John Salling and Walter Williams, to draw the highest Civil War pensions paid by the United States government. The last Civil War veteran, Walter Williams, died in December 1959 at the age of 117. Since then, William's claim as a veteran has been disputed in the newspapers, but sufficient evidence does not exist to positively prove or disprove his military status.

The pursuit and capture of Jefferson Davis at Irwinville, Georgia, cost the Federal government $97,031.62.

From 1861-1865 it cost the Federal government, in millions of dollars:

$727—to clothe and feed the Army
18—to clothe and feed the Navy
339—for transportation of troops and supplies
127—for cavalry and artillery horses
76—for the purchase of arms
8—to maintain and provide for Confederate prisoners

Soldiers and sailors of the United States received 1.34 billion dollars in pay during the war.

In 1861 an infantry private was paid $13 per month—compared to a private's pay of $83 today. A Civil War colonel drew $95 per month and a brigadier general $124. Their counterparts today are paid a monthly base rate of $592 and $800.

During the 1860's the average cost of a musket was $13 as compared to $105 for an M1 Garand in World War II.

List of Civil War Reconstruction Districts
List of Civil War Reconstruction Districts.jpg
Reconstruction was a list of requirements for each Southern state to be readmitted into the Union

(Above) Known as "Readmission," Reconstruction was merely a list of requirements that every rebellious Southern state had to fulfill in order to reenter or rejoin the Union. See also Reconstruction Era, Military Rule, Civil War and American Civil War Reconstruction Era and Acts: 1865-1877.

List of Innovations and Inventions
 
The Civil War caused 620,000 killed, and it forced the United States military to reexamine its stiff, outdated tactics and strategies that had led to the carnage. The U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Naval Academy, and other military schools would adapt, improvise, and overcome to meet the present and future challenges of war. After all, numerous inventions and innovations were a result of the Civil War. The arts of tactics and strategy were revolutionized by the many developments introduced during the 1860s. Thus the Civil War ushered in a new era in warfare with the: FIRST practical machine gun, FIRST repeating rifle used in combat, FIRST use of the railroads as a major means of transporting troops and supplies, FIRST mobile siege artillery mounted on rail cars, FIRST extensive use of trenches and field fortifications, FIRST large-scale use of land mines, known as "subterranean shells", FIRST naval mines or "torpedoes", FIRST ironclad ships engaged in combat, FIRST multi-manned submarine, FIRST organized and systematic care of the wounded on the battlefield, FIRST widespread use of rails for hospital trains, FIRST organized military signal service, FIRST visual signaling by flag and torch during combat, FIRST use of portable telegraph units on the battlefield; FIRST military reconnaissance from a manned balloon, FIRST draft in the United States, FIRST organized use of Negro troops in combat, FIRST voting in the field for a national election by servicemen, FIRST income tax—levied to finance the war, FIRST photograph taken in combat, FIRST Medal of Honor awarded an American soldier. See also Civil War Comparison of North and South, Union and Confederacy and Civil War Small Arms, Firearms, and Edged Weapons: A Photographic History.

See also
 

Sources: Library of Congress; National Park Service; National Archives; William H. Price, The Civil War Centennial Handbook; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; US Census Bureau; The Union Army (1908); Fox, William F. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War (1889); Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (1908); Phisterer, Frederick. Statistical record of the armies of the United States (1883); Hardesty, Jesse. Killed and died of wounds in the Union army during the Civil War (1915). Wright-Eley Co.; Catton, Bruce, The Coming Fury: The Centennial History of the Civil War, Volume 1, Doubleday, 1961, ISBN 0-641-68525-4; Coski, John M., "The War between the Names", North and South magazine, vol. 8, no. 7., January 2006; Musick, Michael P., "Civil War Records: A War by Any Other Name", Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives, Summer 1995, Vol. 27, No. 2; U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901; Wittichen, Mrs. Murray Forbes, "Let's Say 'War Between the States'", Florida Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy, 1954; American National Biography 24 vol (1999); McHenry, Robert ed. Webster's American Military Biographies (1978); Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, (1964), ISBN 978-0-8071-0822-2; Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, (1959), ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9; Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War (1998); Glatthaar, Joseph T. General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse (2009); Hess, Earl J. The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (1997); Power, J. Tracy. Lee's Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Appomattox (2002); Wiley, Bell Irvin. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (1962) (ISBN 978-0-8071-0475-0); Wiley, Bell Irvin. Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952) (ISBN 978-0-8071-0476-7); Blair, Jayne E. The Essential Civil War: A Handbook to the Battles, Armies, Navies And Commanders (2006); Carter, Alice E. and Richard Jensen. The Civil War on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites- 2nd ed. (2003); Current, Richard N., et al. eds. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version) (ISBN 978-0-13-275991-5); Faust, Patricia L. (ed.) Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (1986) (ISBN 978-0-06-181261-3); Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars online edition 1995; Heidler, David Stephen, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002); North & South - The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society deals with book reviews, battles, discussion & analysis, and other issues of the American Civil War; Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005); Savage, Kirk, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997. (The definitive book on Civil War monuments.); Tulloch, Hugh. The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1999); Wagner, Margaret E. Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, eds. The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference (2002); Woodworth, Steven E. ed. American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996) (ISBN 978-0-313-29019-0); Woods, Michael E., "What Twenty-First-Century Historians Have Said about the Causes of Disunion: A Civil War Sesquicentennial Review of the Recent Literature," Journal of American History 99 (Sept. 2012), 415–39; John S. Jackman; William C. Davis (March 1, 1997 – Vol. 58, No. Aug 3, 1992). Diary of a Confederate Soldier: John S. Jackman of the Orphan Brigade. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003; Commager, Henry Steele (ed.). The Blue and the Gray. The Story of the Civil War as Told by Participants. (1950); Hesseltine, William B. ed.; The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction (1962); Simpson, Brooks D. et al. eds. The Civil War: The First Year Told by Those Who Lived It (Library of America 2011); National Museum of Health and Medicine; U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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