Civil War Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864

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1864 Shenandoah Valley Civil War History

With a total of 33,000 casualties, the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864 is generally regarded as the most important of the Civil War campaigns conducted in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Known as the Breadbasket of the Confederacy, the Shenandoah Valley would be the scene of two opposing armies locked in pitched battles during five months in late 1864. While attrition in both armies was the result of this contest, Lee's Second Corps, now called the Army of the Valley, had been decimated and it would be swept from the field in one final round of bloodletting in March 1865  Grant would continue to press the shrinking command under Lee, the once mighty Army of Northern Virginia, until it too capitulated just one month later in April 1865.

Shenandoah Valley Campaign
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Shenandoah Valley Campaign during August -- October 1864

Shenandoah Valley Campaign
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Shenandoah Valley Campaign during May -- July 1864

Shenandoah Valley Civil War History
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Shenandoah Valley Map

The Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864 were operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October 1864. Military historians divide this period into three separate campaigns, but it is useful to consider the three together and how they interacted. Each independent campaign had its clear set of objectives as the numerous battles were being contested during the five month span. Commonly referred to as Early's Valley Campaigns, Sheridan's Valley Campaign, Early's Raids, Hunter's Raid, and even the Lynchburg Campaign, the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864 would conclude with Lee removing Early from command while Custer and Sheridan would be commended by Grant.
In May 1864, the first campaign would begin with Lt. Gen. U.S. Grant's planned invasion by Sigel, who would command the Department of West Virginia with orders to move "up the Valley" and destroy the railroad center at Lynchburg, Virginia. Sigel was intercepted by forces under Confederate Maj. Gen. John C. Breckenridge and defeated. He retreated to Strasburg, Virginia, and was replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter.
Gen. Robert E. Lee was concerned about the Union advance in the Valley during 1864, which threatened critical railroad lines and provisions for the Virginia-based Confederate forces. As a result, Lee detached and sent Jubal Early's Second Corps, renaming it the Army of the Valley, to sweep Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley and, if possible, to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around Petersburg, Virginia.
Ulysses Grant would grow impatient with Hunter and put in motion the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, placing Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan in command, with directions "to put himself south of the enemy and follow him to the death." Just over two months later, with superior Union numbers, Sheridan had delivered a series of stinging defeats during the largest and bloodiest battles fought in the Valley, which wrested away Confederate control of that vital region and laid much of it in ashes, forever removing its ability to sustain Confederate armies. Although smaller and less costly than another more famous campaigns, Sheridan's operations in the Valley had tremendous military and political impacts that fall.

Shenandoah Valley and Civil War
Shenandoah Valley and Civil War.jpg
Shenandoah Valley and Civil War

Total War
At the beginning of 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of all Union armies. He chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, although Maj. Gen. George G. Meade remained the actual commander of that army. He left Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Sherman and President Abraham Lincoln, that only the utter defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would bring an end to the war. Therefore, scorched earth tactics would be required in some important theaters. He devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant, Meade, and Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler against Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia near Richmond; Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel to invade the Shenandoah Valley and destroy Lee's supply lines; Sherman to invade Georgia and capture Atlanta; Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama.
The Confederacy's main objective of the entire series of battles was to pull, draw or lure Grant's army and resources away from Lee, who was pinned down in the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign (aka Siege of Petersburg), and consequently relieve Lee of the overwhelming Union resources that confronted him. Although thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers died during the hotly contested Valley Campaigns, it is perhaps the least studied and talked about of all the Civil War campaigns.
Originally organized as the Second Corps in Lee's army, Early's Army of the Valley numbered approximately 14,000 soldiers. The infantry, totaling near 9,000, was organized into two corps, each consisting of two divisions. The First Corps was commanded by Robert E. Rodes, a Virginia Military Institute graduate and one of the highest-ranking Confederate officers not to have attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. The Second Corps, meanwhile, was led by John C. Breckinridge (cousin to Mary Todd Lincoln), the former U.S. vice president under James Buchanan and a Democratic candidate for president in 1860 (ran against Lincoln). The North Carolinian Robert Ransom commanded roughly 4,000 cavalrymen, organized into four brigades. Approximately sixteen artillery batteries supplemented the army.
The Shenandoah Valley held considerable strategic and logistical promise that attracted the attention of both Union and Confederate forces. The 1864 Valley Campaign far exceeded Confederate general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's famed 1862 Valley Campaign in scope and impact. Early's Army of the Valley engaged in systematic marching maneuvers up and down the Valley, engaged Union forces in numerous battles, offered resistance to Union general Philip H. Sheridan's hard-war policies, invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania twice, and also ransomed and burned Northern cities in hard-war tactics of its own.
Lt. Gen. Jubal Early's independent command during the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns in the summer and autumn of 1864 was the last Confederate unit to invade Northern territory, reaching the outskirts of Washington, D.C. The Army, however, became defunct after its decisive defeat at the Battle of Waynesboro, Virginia, on March 2, 1865.

1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign Map
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Map of Valley Operations in August 1864 -- March 1864

1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign Map
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Map of Valley Operations in May 1864 -- July 1864

Lynchburg Campaign (May – June 1864)


This first campaign started with Union Gen. Grant's planned invasion by Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel. Sigel, a German immigrant, was in command of the Department of West Virginia, and his orders from Grant were to move "up the Valley" (i.e., southwest to the higher elevations) with 10,000 men to destroy the railroad center at Lynchburg, Virginia.


Lynchburg Campaign [May-June 1864] consisted of the following battles: New Market – Piedmont – Lynchburg

Battle of New Market (May 15): Sigel was intercepted by 4,000 troops and cadets from the Virginia Military Institute under Confederate Maj. Gen. John C. Breckenridge and defeated. Sigel, who would die in New York in 1902, retreated to Strasburg, Virginia, and was replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter, who later burned VMI in retaliation for the actions of the VMI cadets; Battle of Piedmont (June 5 – June 6): Hunter resumed the Union offensive and defeated William E. "Grumble" Jones, who was killed in the battle. Hunter occupied StauntonVirginia; Battle of Lynchburg (June 17 – June 18): Hunter was foiled in his plan to destroy railroads, canals, and hospitals in Lynchburg when initial units under Jubal A. Early arrived. Hunter, short on supplies, retreated back through West Virginia.

Sigel was deemed an incompetent general for his disastrous performance against Breckinridge on May 15 at New Market, and replaced by Hunter, who himself would be replaced by Sheridan after allowing Early an unchecked march into Pennsylvania, where he burned Chambersburg in retaliation for Hunter's destruction in the Shenandoah Valley.

1864 Shenandoah Valley in the Civil War
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Hunter's Raid of 1864

Virginia 1864 Civil War Map of Battles
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Virginia during the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaigns

(Right) Map of Union Maj. Gen. Hunter's Raid in June 1864 through Virginia. Map shows Hunter's route, with principal battles, and Confederate railroads.


Early's Raid and Operations Against the B&O Railroad (June – August 1864)


Robert E. Lee was concerned about Hunter's advances in the Valley, which threatened critical railroad lines and provisions for the Virginia-based Confederate forces. He sent Jubal Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Valley and, if possible, to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around Petersburg, Virginia. Early was operating in the shadow of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, whose 1862 Valley Campaign against superior forces was etched in Confederate history. (Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign: A History with Maps and Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862: Confederate Military History.)
Gen. Early had a good start as he proceeded down the Valley without opposition, bypassed Harpers Ferry, crossed the Potomac River, and advanced into Maryland. Grant dispatched a corps under Horatio G. Wright and other troops under George Crook to reinforce Washington and pursue Early.

Early's Raid and Operations Against the B&O Railroad [June-August 1864], aka Early's Maryland Campaign, consisted of the following battles: Monocacy – Fort Stevens – Heaton's Crossroads – Cool Spring – Rutherford's FarmKernstown II – Folck's MillMoorefield

American Civil War Railroads Map
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Railroads were among the principal targets of the Shenandoah Valley

Battle of Monocacy Junction (July 9): Also known as the Battle of Monocacy. Early defeated a smaller force under Lew Wallace near Frederick, Maryland, but this battle delayed his progress enough to allow time for reinforcing the defenses of Washington; Battle of Fort Stevens (July 11– July 12): Early attacked a fort on the northwest defensive perimeter of Washington without success and withdrew back to Virginia; Heaton's Crossroads (July 16): Union cavalry attacked Early's supply trains as the Confederates withdrew across the Loudoun Valley towards the Blue Ridge Mountains. Several small cavalry skirmishes occurred throughout the day as the Federals continued to try and harass Early's column; Battle of Cool Spring (July 17 – July 18): Also known as Snicker's Ferry. Early attacked and repulsed pursuing Union forces under Wright; Battle of Rutherford's Farm (July 20): A Union division attacked a Confederate division under Stephen Dodson Ramseur and routed it. Early withdrew his army south to Fisher's Hill, near Winchester, Virginia; Second Battle of Kernstown (July 24): Wright withdrew, thinking Early was no longer a threat. Early attacked him to prevent or delay his return to Grant's forces besieging Petersburg. Union troops were routed, streaming through the streets of Winchester. Early pursued and burned Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, along the way in retaliation for Hunter's previous destruction in the Valley; Battle of Folck's Mill (August 1): Also known as the Battle of Cumberland. An inconclusive small cavalry battle in Maryland; Battle of Moorefield (August 7): Also known as the Battle of Oldfields. Confederate cavalry returning from the Chambersburg burning were ambushed and defeated by Union cavalry.

Maryland Civil War Map of Battles
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(Maryland Civil War Battlefield Map)

Sheridan's Valley Campaign (August – October 1864)


"The weather was very cold and we were thinly clad in the clothes we had worn all summer. We had no underwear or socks and our shoes were badly worn." Private John H. Stewart, Infantry Regiment, Thomas' Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders, while campaigning under Early in the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864


Grant finally lost patience with Early, particularly his burning of Chambersburg, and knew that Washington remained vulnerable if Early was still on the loose. He found a new commander aggressive enough to defeat Early: Philip Sheridan, the cavalry commander of the Army of the Potomac, who was given command of all forces in the area, calling them the Army of the Shenandoah. Sheridan initially started slowly, primarily because the impending presidential election of 1864 demanded a cautious approach, avoiding any disaster that might lead to the defeat of Abraham Lincoln.

Sheridan's Valley Campaign [August-October 1864] witnessed the following battles: Guard Hill – Summit PointSmithfield CrossingBerryville3rd Winchester – Fisher's Hill – Tom's Brook – Cedar Creek

West Virginia Civil War Battlefield Map
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West Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Battle of Guard Hill (August 16): Also known as Front Royal or Cedarville. Confederate forces under Richard H. Anderson were sent from Petersburg to reinforce Early. Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt's Union cavalry division surprised the Confederate columns while they were crossing the Shenandoah River, capturing about 300. The Confederates rallied and advanced, gradually pushing back Merritt's men to Cedarville. The battle was inconclusive; Battle of Summit Point (August 21): Also known as Flowing Springs or Cameron's Depot. Early and Anderson struck Sheridan near Charles Town, West Virginia. Sheridan conducted a fighting withdrawal; Battle of Smithfield Crossing (August 25 – August 29): Two Confederate divisions crossed Opequon Creek and forced a Union cavalry division back to Charles Town; Battle of Berryville (September 3 – September 4): A minor engagement in which Early attempted to stop Sheridan's march up the Valley. Early withdrew back to Opequon Creek when he realized he was in a poor position for attacking Sheridan's full force; Battle of Opequon (September 19): Also known as the Third Battle of Winchester. While Early had his forces dispersed, raiding the B&O Railroad, Sheridan struck near Winchester, Virginia. Sustaining ruinous casualties, Early retreated from the largest battle in all three of the campaigns, taking up defensive positions at Fisher's Hill; Battle of Fisher's Hill (September 21 – September 22): Sheridan hit Early in an early-morning flanking attack, routing the Confederates with moderate losses. Early retreated to Waynesboro, Virginia. With Early damaged and pinned down, the Valley lay open to the Union. And because of Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Lincoln's re-election now seemed assured. Sheridan pulled back slowly down the Valley and conducted a scorched earth campaign that would presage Sherman's March to the Sea in November. The goal was to deny the Confederacy the means of feeding its armies in Virginia, and Sheridan's army did so ruthlessly, burning crops, barns, mills, and factories; Battle of Tom's Brook (October 9): As Early began a pursuit of Sheridan, Union cavalry routed two divisions of Confederate cavalry; Battle of Cedar Creek (October 19): In a brilliant surprise attack, Early routed two thirds of the Union army, but his troops were hungry and exhausted and fell out of their ranks to pillage the Union camp, and Sheridan managed to rally his troops and defeat Early decisively.

Completing his missions of neutralizing Early and suppressing the Valley's military-related economy, Sheridan returned to assist Grant at Petersburg. Most of the men of Early's corps rejoined Lee at Petersburg in December, while Early remained to command a skeleton force. His final action was defeat at the Battle of Waynesboro on March 2, 1865, after which Lee removed him from his command because the Confederate government and people had lost confidence in him. (See: Siege of Petersburg, Shenandoah Valley and the American Civil War, and American Civil War in the Shenandoah Valley.)

(Sources and related reading below.)

Recommended Reading: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 (McFarland & Company). Description: A significant part of the Civil War was fought in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, especially in 1864. Books and articles have been written about the fighting that took place there, but they generally cover only a small period of time and focus on a particular battle or campaign. Continued below...

This work covers the entire year of 1864 so that readers can clearly see how one event led to another in the Shenandoah Valley and turned once-peaceful garden spots into gory battlefields. It tells the stories of the great leaders, ordinary men, innocent civilians, and armies large and small taking part in battles at New Market, Chambersburg, Winchester, Fisher’s Hill and Cedar Creek, but it primarily tells the stories of the soldiers, Union and Confederate, who were willing to risk their lives for their beliefs. The author has made extensive use of memoirs, letters and reports written by the soldiers of both sides who fought in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864.

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Recommended Reading: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 (Military Campaigns of the Civil War) (416 pages) (The University of North Carolina Press). Description: The 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign is generally regarded as one of the most important Civil War campaigns; it lasted more than four arduous months and claimed more than 25,000 casualties. The massive armies of Generals Philip H. Sheridan and Jubal A. Early had contended for immense stakes... Beyond the agricultural bounty and the boost in morale to be gained with its numerous battles, events in the Valley would affect Abraham Lincoln's chances for reelection in November 1864. Continued below.

The eleven essays in this volume reexamine common assumptions about the campaign, its major figures, and its significance. Taking advantage of the most recent scholarship and a wide range of primary sources, contributors examine strategy and tactics, the performances of key commanders on each side, the campaign's political repercussions, and the experiences of civilians caught in the path of the armies. The authors do not always agree with one another, but, taken together, their essays highlight important connections between the home front and the battlefield, as well as ways in which military affairs, civilian experiences, and politics played off one another during the campaign.

Recommended Reading: General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse. Review: You cannot say that University of North Carolina professor Glatthaar (Partners in Command) did not do his homework in this massive examination of the Civil War–era lives of the men in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Glatthaar spent nearly 20 years examining and ordering primary source material to ferret out why Lee's men fought, how they lived during the war, how they came close to winning, and why they lost. Glatthaar marshals convincing evidence to challenge the often-expressed notion that the war in the South was a rich man's war and a poor man's fight and that support for slavery was concentrated among the Southern upper class. Continued below...

Lee's army included the rich, poor and middle-class, according to the author, who contends that there was broad support for the war in all economic strata of Confederate society. He also challenges the myth that because Union forces outnumbered and materially outmatched the Confederates, the rebel cause was lost, and articulates Lee and his army's acumen and achievements in the face of this overwhelming opposition. This well-written work provides much food for thought for all Civil War buffs.


Recommended Reading: From Winchester to Cedar Creek: The Shenandoah Campaign of 1864. Review: Virginia's Shenandoah Valley was a crucial avenue for Confederate armies intending to invade Northern states during the Civil War. Running southwest to northeast, it "pointed, like a giant's lance, at the Union's heart, Washington, D.C.," writes Jeffry Wert. It was also "the granary of the Confederacy," supplying the food for much of Virginia. Both sides long understood its strategic importance, but not until the fall of 1864 did Union troops led by Napoleon-sized cavalry General Phil Sheridan (5'3", 120 lbs.) finally seize it for good. He defeated Confederate General Jubal Early at four key battles that autumn. Continued below…

In addition to a narrative of the campaign (featuring dozens of characters, including General George Custer and future president Rutherford B. Hayes), this book is a study of command. Both Sheridan and Early were capable military leaders, though each had flaws. Sheridan tended to make mistakes before battles, Early during them. Wert considers Early the better general, but admits that few could match the real-time decision-making and leadership skills of Sheridan once the bullets started flying: "When Little Phil rode onto the battlefield, he entered his element." Early was a bold fighter, but lacked the skills necessary to make up for his disadvantage in manpower. At Cedar Creek, the climactic battle of the 1864 Shenandoah campaign, Early "executed a masterful offensive against a numerically superior opponent, only to watch it result in ruin." With more Confederate troops on the scene, history might have been different. Wert relates the facts of what actually happened with his customary clarity and insightful analysis.


Recommended Reading: Stonewall in the Valley: Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Spring 1862. Description: The Valley Campaign conducted by Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson has long fascinated those interested in the American Civil War as well as general students of military history, all of whom still question exactly what Jackson did in the Shenandoah in 1862 and how he did it. Since Robert G. Tanner answered many questions in the first edition of Stonewall in the Valley in 1976, he has continued to research the campaign. This edition offers new insights on the most significant moments of Stonewall's Shenandoah triumph. Continued below…

About the Author: Robert G. Tanner is a graduate of the Virginia Military Institute. Tanner is a native of Southern California, he now lives and practices law in Atlanta, Georgia. He has studied and lectured on the Shenandoah Valley Campaign for more than twenty-five years.


Recommended Reading: Shenandoah 1862: Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign, by Peter Cozzens (Civil War America) (Hardcover). Description: In the spring of 1862, Federal troops under the command of General George B. McClellan launched what was to be a coordinated, two-pronged attack on Richmond in the hope of taking the Confederate capital and bringing a quick end to the Civil War. The Confederate high command tasked Stonewall Jackson with diverting critical Union resources from this drive, a mission Jackson fulfilled by repeatedly defeating much larger enemy forces. His victories elevated him to near iconic status in both the North and the South and signaled a long war ahead. One of the most intriguing and storied episodes of the Civil War, the Valley Campaign has heretofore only been related from the Confederate point of view. Continued below…

With Shenandoah 1862, Peter Cozzens dramatically and conclusively corrects this shortcoming, giving equal attention to both Union and Confederate perspectives. Based on a multitude of primary sources, Cozzens's groundbreaking work offers new interpretations of the campaign and the reasons for Jackson's success. Cozzens also demonstrates instances in which the mythology that has come to shroud the campaign has masked errors on Jackson's part. In addition, Shenandoah 1862 provides the first detailed appraisal of Union leadership in the Valley Campaign, with some surprising conclusions. Moving seamlessly between tactical details and analysis of strategic significance, Cozzens presents the first balanced, comprehensive account of a campaign that has long been romanticized but never fully understood. Includes 13 illustrations and 13 maps. About the Author: Peter Cozzens is an independent scholar and Foreign Service officer with the U.S. Department of State. He is author or editor of nine highly acclaimed Civil War books, including The Darkest Days of the War: The Battles of Iuka and Corinth (from the University of North Carolina Press).


Recommended Reading: Shenandoah Summer: The 1864 Valley Campaign. Description: Jubal A. Early’s disastrous battles in the Shenandoah Valley ultimately resulted in his ignominious dismissal. But Early’s lesser-known summer campaign of 1864, between his raid on Washington and Phil Sheridan’s renowned fall campaign, had a significant impact on the political and military landscape of the time. By focusing on military tactics and battle history in uncovering the facts and events of these little-understood battles, Scott C. Patchan offers a new perspective on Early’s contributions to the Confederate war effort—and to Union battle plans and politicking. Patchan details the previously unexplored battles at Rutherford’s Farm and Kernstown (a pinnacle of Confederate operations in the Shenandoah Valley) and examines the campaign’s influence on President Lincoln’s reelection efforts. Continued below…

He also provides insights into the personalities, careers, and roles in Shenandoah of Confederate General John C. Breckinridge, Union general George Crook, and Union colonel James A. Mulligan, with his “fighting Irish” brigade from Chicago. Finally, Patchan reconsiders the ever-colorful and controversial Early himself, whose importance in the Confederate military pantheon this book at last makes clear. About the Author: Scott C. Patchan, a Civil War battlefield guide and historian, is the author of Forgotten Fury: The Battle of Piedmont, Virginia, and a consultant and contributing writer for Shenandoah, 1862.


"The author's descriptions of the battles are very detailed, full or regimental level actions, and individual incidents. He bases the accounts on commendable research in manuscript collections, newspapers, published memoirs and regimental histories, and secondary works. The words of the participants, quoted often by the author, give the narrative an immediacy. . . . A very creditable account of a neglected period."-Jeffry D. Wert, Civil War News (Jeffry D. Wert Civil War News 20070914)

"[Shenandoah Summer] contains excellent diagrams and maps of every battle and is recommended reading for those who have a passion for books on the Civil War."-Waterline (Waterline 20070831)

"The narrative is interesting and readable, with chapters of a digestible length covering many of the battles of the campaign."-Curled Up With a Good Book (Curled Up With a Good Book 20060815)

"Shenandoah Summer provides readers with detailed combat action, colorful character portrayals, and sound strategic analysis. Patchan''s book succeeds in reminding readers that there is still plenty to write about when it comes to the American Civil War."-John Deppen, Blue & Grey Magazine (John Deppen Blue & Grey Magazine 20060508)

"Scott C. Patchan has solidified his position as the leading authority of the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign with his outstanding campaign study, Shenandoah Summer. Mr. Patchan not only unearths this vital portion of the campaign, he has brought it back to life with a crisp and suspenseful narrative. His impeccable scholarship, confident analyses, spellbinding battle scenes, and wonderful character portraits will captivate even the most demanding readers. Shenandoah Summer is a must read for the Civil War aficionado as well as for students and scholars of American military history."-Gary Ecelbarger, author of "We Are in for It!": The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862 (Gary Ecelbarger 20060903)

"Scott Patchan has given us a definitive account of the 1864 Valley Campaign. In clear prose and vivid detail, he weaves a spellbinding narrative that bristles with detail but never loses sight of the big picture. This is a campaign narrative of the first order."-Gordon C. Rhea, author of The Battle of the Wilderness: May 5-6, 1864 (Gordon C. Rhea )

"[Scott Patchan] is a `boots-on-the-ground' historian, who works not just in archives but also in the sun and the rain and tall grass. Patchan's mastery of the topography and the battlefields of the Valley is what sets him apart and, together with his deep research, gives his analysis of the campaign an unimpeachable authority."-William J. Miller, author of Mapping for Stonewall and Great Maps of the Civil War (William J. Miller)

Sources: Davis, William C., The Battle of New Market, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1993, ISBN 0-8117-0576-5; Early, Jubal A., and Gallagher, Gary W. (editor), A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence in the Confederate States of America, University of South Carolina Press, 2001, ISBN 1-57003-450-8; Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5; Gallagher, Gary W., ed., Struggle for the Shenandoah: Essays on the 1864 Valley Campaign, Kent State University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-87338-429-6; Gallagher, Gary W., ed., The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 (Military Campaigns of the Civil War), University of North Carolina Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0807830055; Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6; Knight, Charles, Valley Thunder: The Battle of New Market, New York: Savas Beatie, 2009, ISBN 978-1-932714-80-7; Leepson, Marc, Desperate Engagement: How a Little-Known Civil War Battle Saved Washington, D.C., and Changed American History, Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2007, ISBN 0-312-36364-8; Lewis, Thomas A., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Shenandoah in Flames: The Valley Campaign of 1864, Time-Life Books, 1987,ISBN 0-8094-4784-3; Library of Congress; National Archives; National Park Service; Pancake, John, "Virginia Reveres Civil War Bravery", Washington Post, November 26, 2008; Patchan, Scott C., The Battle of Piedmont, Virginia, Sgt. Kirkland's Press, Fredericksburg, 1996; Patchan, Scott C. Shenandoah Summer: The 1864 Valley Campaign. University of Nebraska Press; Lincoln, Ne. 2007; Salmon, John S., The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide, Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4; Wittenberg, Eric J., Little Phil: A Reassessment of the Civil War Leadership of Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, Potomac Books, 2002, ISBN 1-57488-548-0; Woodworth, Steven E., and Winkle, Kenneth J., Oxford Atlas of the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-522131-1; U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901; Carrie Hunter Willis and Etta Belle Walker, 1937, Legends of the Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia; Davis, Julia. The Shenandoah. Rivers of America. Farrar&Rinehart, Inc. New York. 1945; Joseph Doddridge, 1850, A History of the Valley of Virginia; David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989; Joseph Solomon Walton, 1900, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania.

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