General James Longstreet and Battle of Gettysburg

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General Longstreet, Battle of Gettysburg, and Pickett's Charge!

General Longstreet's Command on July 3, 1863

Longstreet's Corps and the Grand Assault
Longstreet's Corps and Pickett's Charge.jpg
Pickett's Charge at Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863


Confederate troops under General Longstreet's command, July 3, 1863

(Key: (K) killed, (MW) mortally wounded, (W) wounded, (W/C) wounded and captured.)

Pickett's Division
Major General George E. Pickett

Kemper’s Brigade
Brig. General James Kemper (W/C); Col. Joseph Mayo, Jr.
1st Virginia Infantry- Col. Lewis B. Williams (K); Major Frank H. Langley (W)
3rd Virginia Infantry- Col. Joseph Mayo, Jr.; Lt. Col. A.D. Callcote (K)
7th Virginia Infantry- Col. Walter T. Patton (W/C- died 21 July 1863); Lt. Col. Charles Flowerree
11th Virginia Infantry- Maj. Kirkwood Otey (W)
24th Virginia Infantry- Col. William Terry; Major Joseph Hambrick (W)

Armistead's Brigade
Brig. General Lewis Armistead (MW/C); Col. William R. Aylett
9th Virginia Infantry- Maj. John C. Owens (MW); Adjutant 1st Lt. James Crocker (W/C)
14th Virginia Infantry- Col. James Hodges (K); Lt. Col. William White; Major Robert H. Poore (MW)
38th Virginia Infantry- Col. Edward C. Edmonds (K); Lt. Col. P.B. Whittle (W); Major Joseph Cabell
53rd Virginia Infantry- Col. William Aylett (W)
57th Virginia Infantry- Col. John Bowie Magruder (W/C, died); Lt. Col. Benjamin Wade (MW); Major Clement Fontaine

Garnett’s Brigade
Brig. General Richard Garnett (K); Major C.S. Peyton
8th Virginia Infantry- Col. Eppa Hunton (W); Lt. Col. Norborne Berkeley (W/C); Maj. Edmund Berkeley (W)
18th Virginia Infantry- Lt. Col. Henry A. Carrington (W/C), Adjutant 1st Lt. Richard Ferguson (C)
19th Virginia Infantry- Col. Henry Gantt (W); Lt. Col. John T. Ellis (MW); Major Charles Peyton (W)
28th Virginia Infantry- Col. Robert C. Allen (K); Lt. Col. William Watts; Major Nathaniel Wilson (MW)
56th Virginia Infantry- Col. William Stuart (MW); Lt. Col. P.P. Slaughter

Heth’s Division
Major General Henry Heth; Brig. General James J. Pettigrew

Archer’s Brigade
Brig. General James Archer; Colonel Birkett D. Fry
5th Alabama Battalion- Maj. Albert S. Van de Graff
13th Alabama Infantry- Col. Birkett D. Fry
1st Tennessee Infantry(PAC)- Maj. Felix Buchanan
7th Tennessee Infantry- Col. John A. Fite; Lt. Col. Samuel G. Shepard
14th Tennessee Infantry- Captain Bruce L. Phillips

Pettigrew's Brigade
Brig. General J.J. Pettigrew; Colonel James K. Marshall
11th North Carolina Infantry- Col. Collett Leventhorpe
26th North Carolina Infantry- Col. Henry K. Burgwyn, Jr.; Captain H.C. Albright
42nd North Carolina Infantry- Col. George H. Faribault
52nd North Carolina Infantry- Col. James K. Marshall; Lt. Col. Marcus A. Parks

Davis’ Brigade
Brig. General Davis
2nd Mississippi Infantry- Col. John M. Stone
11th Mississippi Infantry- Col. Francis M. Green
42nd Mississippi Infantry- Col. Hugh R. Miller
55th North Carolina Infantry- Col. John Kerr Connaly

Brockenbrough’s Brigade
Colonel John M. Brockenbrough
40th Virginia Infantry- Captain T. Edwin Betts; Captain R.B. Davis
47th Virginia Infantry- Col. Robert M. Mayo
55th Virginia Infantry- Col. William S. Christian
22nd Virginia Battalion- Maj. John S. Bowles

Pender’s Division
Major General William Dorsey Pender; Major General Isaac Trimble

Lane's Brigade
Brig. General James Lane; Col. Clarke M. Avery
7th North Carolina Infantry- Captain J. McCleod Turner; Captain James G. Harris
18th North Carolina Infantry- Col. John D. Barry
28th North Carolina Infantry- Col. Samuel D. Lowe; Lt. Col. W.H.A. Speer
33rd North Carolina Infantry- Col. Clarke M. Avery
37th North Carolina Infantry- Col. William M. Barbour

Scales’ Brigade
Brig. General Alfred M. Scales; Lt. Col. G.T. Gordon; Col. William Lowrance
13th North Carolina Infantry- Col. Joseph H. Hyman; Lt. Col. Henry A. Rogers
16th North Carolina Infantry- Captain Leroy Stowe
22nd North Carolina Infantry- Col. James Conner
34th North Carolina Infantry- Col. William Lowrance; Lt. Col. G.T. Gordon
38th North Carolina Infantry- Col. William J. Hoke; Lt. Col. John Ashford

Anderson’s Division
Major General Richard H. Anderson

Wilcox’s Brigade
Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox
8th Alabama Infantry- Lt. Col. Hilary Herbert
9th Alabama Infantry- Captain J. Horace King
10th Alabama Infantry- Col. William H. Forney; Lt. Col. James Shelley
11th Alabama Infantry- Lt. Col. John C. Sanders; Lt. Col. George E. Tayloe
14th Alabama Infantry- Col. Lucius Pinckard; Lt. Col. James A. Broome

Perry's Brigade
Colonel David Lang
2nd Florida Infantry- Major Walter R. Moore
4th Florida Infantry- Captain Richmond N. Gardner
5th Florida Infantry- Colonel David Lang

Sources: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Gettysburg National Military Park

Recommended Reading: Brigades of Gettysburg: The Union and Confederate Brigades at the Battle of Gettysburg (Hardcover) (704 Pages). Description: While the battle of Gettysburg is certainly the most-studied battle in American history, a comprehensive treatment of the part played by each unit has been ignored. Brigades of Gettysburg fills this void by presenting a complete account of every brigade unit at Gettysburg and providing a fresh perspective of the battle. Using the words of enlisted men and officers, the author and renowned Civil War historian, Bradley Gottfried, weaves a fascinating narrative of the role played by every brigade at the famous three-day battle, as well as a detailed description of each brigade unit. Continued below.

Organized by order of battle, each brigade is covered in complete and exhaustive detail: where it fought, who commanded, what constituted the unit, and how it performed in battle. Innovative in its approach and comprehensive in its coverage, Brigades of Gettysburg is certain to be a classic and indispensable reference for the battle of Gettysburg for years to come.

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Recommended Reading: Pickett's Charge, by George Stewart. Description: The author has written an eminently readable, thoroughly enjoyable, and well-researched book on the third day of the Gettysburg battle, July 3, 1863. An especially rewarding read if one has toured, or plans to visit, the battlefield site. The author's unpretentious, conversational style of writing succeeds in putting the reader on the ground occupied by both the Confederate and Union forces before, during and after Pickett's and Pettigrew's famous assault on Meade's Second Corps. Continued below...

Interspersed with humor and down-to-earth observations concerning battlefield conditions, the author conscientiously describes all aspects of the battle, from massing of the assault columns and pre-assault artillery barrage to the last shots and the flight of the surviving rebels back to the safety of their lines… Having visited Gettysburg several years ago, this superb volume makes me want to go again.


Recommended Reading: ONE CONTINUOUS FIGHT: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4-14, 1863 (Hardcover) (June 2008). Description: The titanic three-day battle of Gettysburg left 50,000 casualties in its wake, a battered Southern army far from its base of supplies, and a rich historiographic legacy. Thousands of books and articles cover nearly every aspect of the battle, but not a single volume focuses on the military aspects of the monumentally important movements of the armies to and across the Potomac River. One Continuous Fight: The Retreat from Gettysburg and the Pursuit of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, July 4-14, 1863 is the first detailed military history of Lee's retreat and the Union effort to catch and destroy the wounded Army of Northern Virginia. Against steep odds and encumbered with thousands of casualties, Confederate commander Robert E. Lee's post-battle task was to successfully withdraw his army across the Potomac River. Union commander George G. Meade's equally difficult assignment was to intercept the effort and destroy his enemy. The responsibility for defending the exposed Southern columns belonged to cavalry chieftain James Ewell Brown (JEB) Stuart. If Stuart fumbled his famous ride north to Gettysburg, his generalship during the retreat more than redeemed his flagging reputation. The ten days of retreat triggered nearly two dozen skirmishes and major engagements, including fighting at Granite Hill, Monterey Pass, Hagerstown, Williamsport, Funkstown, Boonsboro, and Falling Waters. Continued below...

President Abraham Lincoln was thankful for the early July battlefield victory, but disappointed that General Meade was unable to surround and crush the Confederates before they found safety on the far side of the Potomac. Exactly what Meade did to try to intercept the fleeing Confederates, and how the Southerners managed to defend their army and ponderous 17-mile long wagon train of wounded until crossing into western Virginia on the early morning of July 14, is the subject of this study. One Continuous Fight draws upon a massive array of documents, letters, diaries, newspaper accounts, and published primary and secondary sources. These long-ignored foundational sources allow the authors, each widely known for their expertise in Civil War cavalry operations, to describe carefully each engagement. The result is a rich and comprehensive study loaded with incisive tactical commentary, new perspectives on the strategic role of the Southern and Northern cavalry, and fresh insights on every engagement, large and small, fought during the retreat. The retreat from Gettysburg was so punctuated with fighting that a soldier felt compelled to describe it as "One Continuous Fight." Until now, few students fully realized the accuracy of that description. Complimented with 18 original maps, dozens of photos, and a complete driving tour with GPS coordinates of the entire retreat, One Continuous Fight is an essential book for every student of the American Civil War in general, and for the student of Gettysburg in particular. About the Authors: Eric J. Wittenberg has written widely on Civil War cavalry operations. His books include Glory Enough for All (2002), The Union Cavalry Comes of Age (2003), and The Battle of Monroe's Crossroads and the Civil War's Final Campaign (2005). He lives in Columbus, Ohio. J. David Petruzzi is the author of several magazine articles on Eastern Theater cavalry operations, conducts tours of cavalry sites of the Gettysburg Campaign, and is the author of the popular "Buford's Boys." A long time student of the Gettysburg Campaign, Michael Nugent is a retired US Army Armored Cavalry Officer and the descendant of a Civil War Cavalry soldier. He has previously written for several military publications. Nugent lives in Wells, Maine.


Recommended Reading: General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse (Hardcover). Review: You cannot say that University of North Carolina professor Glatthaar (Partners in Command) did not do his homework in this massive examination of the Civil War–era lives of the men in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Glatthaar spent nearly 20 years examining and ordering primary source material to ferret out why Lee's men fought, how they lived during the war, how they came close to winning, and why they lost. Glatthaar marshals convincing evidence to challenge the often-expressed notion that the war in the South was a rich man's war and a poor man's fight and that support for slavery was concentrated among the Southern upper class. Continued below...

Lee's army included the rich, poor and middle-class, according to the author, who contends that there was broad support for the war in all economic strata of Confederate society. He also challenges the myth that because Union forces outnumbered and materially outmatched the Confederates, the rebel cause was lost, and articulates Lee and his army's acumen and achievements in the face of this overwhelming opposition. This well-written work provides much food for thought for all Civil War buffs.


Recommended Reading: Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command (912 pages). Description: Hailed as one of the greatest Civil War books, this exhaustive study is an abridgement of the original three-volume version. It is a history of the Army of Northern Virginia from the first shot fired to the surrender at Appomattox - but what makes this book unique is that it incorporates a series of biographies of more than 150 Confederate officers. The book discusses in depth all the tradeoffs that were being made politically and militarily by the South.

The book does an excellent job describing the battles, then at a critical decision point in the battle, the book focuses on an officer - the book stops and tells the biography of that person, and then goes back to the battle and tells what information the officer had at that point and the decision he made. At the end of the battle, the officers decisions are critiqued based on what he "could have known and what he should have known" given his experience, and that is compared with 20/20 hindsight. "It is an incredibly well written book!"


Recommended Reading: General James Longstreet: The Confederacy's Most Controversial Soldier (Simon & Schuster). Description: This isn't the first biography to be written on Confederate General James Longstreet, but it's the best--and certainly the one that pays the most attention to Longstreet's performance as a military leader. Historian Jeffry D. Wert aims to rehabilitate Longstreet's reputation, which traditionally has suffered in comparison to those of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. Some Southern partisans have blamed Longstreet unfairly for the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg; Wert corrects the record. He is not “uncritical” of Longstreet's record, but he rightly suggests that if Lee had followed Longstreet's advice, the battle's outcome might have been different. Continued below...

The facts of history cannot be changed, however, and Wert musters them on these pages to advance a bold claim: "Longstreet, not Jackson, was the finest corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia; in fact, he was arguably the best corps commander in the conflict on either side." Wert describes his subject as strategically aggressive, but tactically reserved. The bulk of the book appropriately focuses on the Civil War, but Wert also briefly delves into Longstreet's life before and after it. Most interestingly, it was framed by a friendship with Ulysses S. Grant, formed at West Point and continuing into old age. Longstreet even served in the Grant administration--an act that called into question his loyalty to the Lost Cause, and explains in part why Wert's biography is a welcome antidote to much of what has been written about this controversial figure.

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