First Battle of Winchester

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First Battle of Winchester
Virginia Civil War History

First Battle of Winchester   

Other Names: Battle of Winchester, Battle of Bowers Hill

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Campaign: Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862)

Date(s): May 25, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. T. J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 22,500 total (US 6,500; CS 16,000)

Estimated Casualties: 2,419 total (US 2,019; CS 400)

Result(s): Confederate victory

First Battle of Winchester Map
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Jackson's Valley Campaign: Front Royal to Port Republic.

Description: After skirmishing with Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s retreating army at Middletown and Newtown on May 24, Maj. Gen. T. J. Jackson’s division continued north on the Valley Pike toward Winchester. There, Banks was attempting to reorganize his army to defend the town. Ewell’s division converged on Winchester from the southeast using the Front Royal Pike.

On May 25, Ewell attacked Camp Hill, while the Louisiana Brigade of Jackson’s division outflanked and overran the Union position on Bowers Hill. Panic spread through the Federal ranks, and many fled through Winchester. Banks’s army was soundly defeated and withdrew north across the Potomac River. This was a decisive battle in Jackson’s Valley Campaign.

First Battle of Winchester Map
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Civil War Battle of Winchester, Virginia, Map

Setting the Stage: Jackson's Valley Campaign, which included the First Battle of Winchester, was Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's famous spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. Employing audacity and rapid, unpredictable movements on interior lines, Jackson's 17,000 men marched 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days and won several minor battles as they successfully engaged three Union armies (52,000 men), preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond.
Jackson suffered a defeat (his sole defeat of the war) at the First Battle of Kernstown (March 23, 1862) against Col. Nathan Kimball (part of Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army), but it proved to be a strategic Confederate victory because President Abraham Lincoln reinforced his Valley forces with troops that had originally been designated for the Peninsula Campaign against Richmond. On May 8, after more than a month of skirmishing with Banks, Jackson moved deceptively to the west of the Valley and drove back elements of Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont's army in the Battle of McDowell, preventing a potential combination of the two Union armies against him. Jackson then headed down the Valley once again to confront Banks. Concealing his movement in the Luray Valley, Jackson joined forces with Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and captured the Federal garrison at Front Royal on May 23, causing Banks to retreat to the north. On May 25, in the First Battle of Winchester, Jackson defeated Banks and pursued him until the Union Army crossed the Potomac River into Maryland.

First Battle of Winchester Map
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Civil War First Battle of Winchester Map

Bringing in Union reinforcements from eastern Virginia, Brig. Gen. James Shields recaptured Front Royal and planned to link up with Frémont in Strasburg. Jackson was now threatened by three small Union armies. Withdrawing up the Valley from Winchester, Jackson was pursued by Frémont and Shields. On June 8, Ewell defeated Frémont in the Battle of Cross Keys and on the following day, crossed the North River to join forces with Jackson to defeat Shields in the Battle of Port Republic, bringing the campaign to a close.
Jackson followed up his successful campaign by forced marches to join Gen. Robert E. Lee for the Seven Days Battles outside Richmond. His audacious campaign elevated him to the position of the most famous general in the Confederacy (until this reputation was later supplanted by Lee) and has been studied ever since by military organizations around the world.

First Battle of Winchester
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Civil War Battle of Winchester

Battle: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks learned on May 24, 1862, that the Confederates had captured his garrison at Front Royal, Virginia, and were closing on Winchester, turning his position. He ordered a hasty retreat down the Valley Pike from Strasburg. His columns were attacked at Middletown and again at Newtown (Stephens City) by Jackson's converging forces. The Confederates took many Union prisoners and captured so many wagons and stores that they later nicknamed the Union general "Commissary Banks". Jackson pressed the pursuit for most of the night and allowed his exhausted soldiers only a few hours sleep before dawn.
Banks now deployed at Winchester to slow the Confederate pursuit. He had two brigades of infantry under Colonels Dudley Donnelly and George Henry Gordon, a mixed brigade of cavalry under Brig. Gen. John P. Hatch, and 16 guns. Gordon's brigade was placed on the Union right on Bower's Hill with its left flank at the Valley Pike, supported by a battery of artillery. The center of the line (Camp Hill) was held by the cavalry supported by two guns. Donnelly's brigade was placed in a crescent on the left to cover the Front Royal and Millwood roads with the rest of the artillery. At earliest light the Confederate skirmish line advanced in force driving the Union pickets back to their main line of battle.

First Battle of Winchester
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Winchester Civil War Historical Marker

During the night, the advance of Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's division (four brigades) reached Buffalo Lick. Jackson moved three of Ewell's brigades to the left to participate in the advance on the Valley pike, leaving Ewell with just Trimble's brigade and the Maryland and Bradley Johnson's Maryland regiment. At dawn, he deployed Trimble's brigade astride the Front Royal Pike and advanced against the Union left flank. His leading regiments (in particular the 21st North Carolina) came under heavy fire from Union forces deployed behind stone fences and were repulsed. Confederate forces regrouped and brought up artillery. Ewell advanced the regiments of Trimble's brigade, sending regiments to either side of the high ground to enfilade the Union position. Donnelly withdrew his brigade to a position closer to town with his right flank anchored on Camp Hill. Ewell then attempted a flanking movement to the right beyond the Millwood Road, but in response to orders from Banks, Donnelly withdrew through the town.
In conjunction with Ewell's advance on the Front Royal Pike, Jackson advanced on the Valley Pike at early dawn in a heavy fog. At Jackson's command, the Winder's brigade swept over a hill to the left of the pike, driving off the Union skirmishers who held it. Jackson quickly placed a section of artillery on the hill to engage Union artillery on Bower's Hill at a range of less than half a mile. Union sharpshooters along Abrams Creek began picking off the cannoneers. Jackson brought up the rest of his artillery and a duel ensued with the Union guns on Bower's Hill.

First Battle of Winchester Map
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Civil War Battle of Winchester, Virginia, Map

First Battle of Winchester Map
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American Civil War Winchester Map

Jackson then brought up the brigades of Fulkerson, Campbell and Elzey to support Winder. Then Jackson deployed Brig. Gen. Richard Taylor's Louisiana brigade (led by the Louisiana Tigers) reinforced by two regiments of Fulkerson's brigade and backed up by Scott's brigade, to the left along Abrams Creek. Taylor marched under fire to a position overlapping the Union right and then attacked Bower's Hill. The Confederate assault swept irresistibly forward over the crest in the face of determined resistance. With three enemy brigades in its front and three coming at its right flank, Gordon's Union brigade gave way and Union soldiers began streaming back into town.
Union forces retreated through the streets of Winchester and north on the Valley Pike to Martinsburg. After resting in Martinsburg, Banks command continued north to the Potomac river, crossing it at Williamsport. Confederate pursuit was lethargic, as the troops were exhausted from the non-stop marching of the previous week under Jackson's command. Nevertheless, many Union prisoners fell into Confederate hands. Brig. Gen. Turner Ashby's cavalry was disorganized from the actions of May 24 and did not pursue until Banks had already reached the Potomac River.

Aftermath and Analysis: The First Battle of Winchester, fought on May 25, 1862, in the greater Winchester area (Frederick County, Virginia), was a major victory in Confederate Army Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's Campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. Jackson enveloped the right flank of the Union Army under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks and pursued it as it fled across the Potomac River into Maryland.

First Winchester was a major victory in Jackson's Valley Campaign. The ultimate significance of Jackson's victory at Winchester was its strategic impact. Union plans for a convergence on Richmond were disrupted by Jackson's audacity, and thousands of Union reinforcements were diverted to the Valley and the defense of Washington, D.C.

The Civil War First Battle of Winchester
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Winchester Civil War Battlefield Map

First Battle of Winchester, VA
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Winchester Battlefield Map

Winchester (county seat for Frederick County, Virginia) and the surrounding area were the site of numerous battles during the American Civil War.

Winchester was a key strategic position for the Confederate States Army during the war. It was an important operational objective in Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's and Col. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's defense of the Shenandoah Valley in 1861, Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862, the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863, and the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Including minor cavalry raids and patrols, and occasional reconnaissances, historians claim that Winchester changed hands as many as 72 times, and 13 times in one day. Battles raged along Main Street at different points in the war. Both Union General Sheridan and Stonewall Jackson located their headquarters just one block apart at various times.

At the north end of the lower Shenandoah Valley, Winchester was a base of operations for major Confederate invasions into the Northern United States. At times the attacks threatened the capital of Washington, D.C. (named Washington City at the time). The town served as a central point for troops' conducting major raids against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and turnpike and telegraph paths along those routes and the Potomac River Valley. For instance, in 1861, Stonewall Jackson removed 56 locomotives and more than 300 railroad cars, along with miles of track, from the B&O Railroad. His attack closed down the B&O's main line for ten months. Much of the effort to transport this equipment by horse and carriage centered in Winchester. Passing through or nearby Winchester are these major transportation and communications routes:

  • The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
  • The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
  • The Winchester and Potomac Railroad
  • The Manassas Gap Railroad and Manassas Gap
  • The Valley Pike and Martinsburg Pike
  • The Pughtown Pike
  • The Northwestern Grade and Petticoat Gap to Romney, West Virginia
  • The Berryville Pike, Castleman's Ferry and Snickers Gap
  • The Millwood Pike, Berry's Ferry and Ashby's Gap
  • The Front Royal Pike and Chester Gap

Ties between Winchester and the American Civil War are considered to begin with the involvement of the city in the suppression of John Brown's Raid in 1859. Colonel Lewis Tilghman Moore of the 31st Virginia Militia of Frederick County assembled 150 militia men from the Marion Guards, the Morgan Continentals, and the Mount Vernon Riflemen in October, 1859 and moved them by the Winchester and Potomac Railroad to Harper's Ferry. Ironically, the first death of Brown's raid was Heyward Shepard, a free black from Winchester, who was buried in Winchester with full military honors. Following the raid, Judge Richard Parker of Winchester presided over the trial of John Brown, sentencing the insurrectionist to hang. One of the sons of John Brown and two other raiders (John Anthony Copeland and Shields Green) were later examined at the Winchester Medical College in Winchester as cadavers for medical training, an action for which the Federals later burned the College to the ground.

Winchester, Virginia, Civil War Map
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Civil War Railroads and Virginia Map

1st Battle of Winchester Map
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Frederick County, Virginia, Map

Located at the north end of the lower Shenandoah Valley at a latitude north of the Federal capital city of Washington, D.C., Winchester's location was the hub of key roadways linking the Ohio Valley to the eastern United States coastal plains. Sitting just south of the Potomac River, Winchester lay on the only route between the east and western United States with direct connections to Washington, D.C.

List of battles and campaigns involving the greater Winchester area:

  • Colonel Jackson's Defense of the Lower Valley of 1861
    • The Great Train Raid of 1861, May 23 – June 23, 1861
    • The Skirmish of Falling Waters, July 2, 1861
  • General Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862
    • The Romney Expedition, January 1–24, 1862
    • The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862
    • The First Battle of Winchester, May 25, 1862
  • General Robert E. Lee's Maryland Campaign of 1862
    • The Battle of Harpers Ferry, September 12–15, 1862
  • General Robert E. Lee's Gettysburg Campaign of 1863
    • The Second Battle of Winchester, June 13–15, 1863
  • General Early's Valley Campaign and Washington, D.C. Raid of 1864
    • The Battle of Snicker's Ferry, July 17–18, 1864
    • The Battle of Rutherford's Farm, July 20, 1864
    • The Second Battle of Kernstown, July 24, 1864
    • The Battle of Berryville, September 3–4, 1864
    • The Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864
    • The Battle of Belle Grove (or Cedar Creek), October 19, 1864

As both the Confederate and Union armies strove to control the greater Winchester area of the Shenandoah Valley, seven major battlefields were contested within the original Frederick County:

Within the city of Winchester:

  • The First Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862
  • The First Battle of Winchester, May 25, 1862
  • The Second Battle of Winchester, June 13–15, 1863
  • The Second Battle of Kernstown, July 24, 1864
  • The Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864

Near the city of Winchester:

  • The Battle of Berryville, September 3–4, 1864
  • The Battle of Cedar Creek (aka Battle of Belle Grove), October 19, 1864

During the war, Winchester was occupied by the Union Army for four major periods:

  • Major General Nathaniel Banks – (March May 12 to 25, 1862, and June 4 to September 2, 1862)
  • Major General Robert Milroy – (December 24, 1862, to June 15, 1863)
  • Major General Philip Sheridan – (September 19, 1864, to February 27, 1865)
  • Major General Winfield Scott Hancock – February 27, 1865, to June 27, 1865
  • The Occupation of the First Military District of Major General John Schofield – (End of War to January 26, 1870)

First Battle of Winchester Map
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Civil War Winchester Battlefield Map

Major General Sheridan raided up the Valley from Winchester, where his forces destroyed "2,000 barns filled with grain and implements, not to mention other outbuildings, 70 mills filled with wheat and flour" and "numerous head of livestock," to lessen the area's ability to supply the Confederates.

Numerous local men served with the Confederate Army, mostly as troops. Dr. Hunter McGuire was Chief Surgeon of the Second "Jackson's" Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. He laid the foundations for the future Geneva conventions regarding the treatment of medical doctors during warfare. Winchester served as a major center for Confederate medical operations, particularly after the Battle of Sharpsburg in 1862 and the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.

Among those who took part in battles at Winchester were future U.S. presidents McKinley and Hayes, both as officers in the Union IX Corps.

The first constitution of West Virginia provided for Frederick County to be added to the new state if approved by a local election. Unlike those of neighboring Berkeley and Jefferson counties, Frederick County residents voted to remain in Virginia despite being occupied by the Union Army at the time. Advance to Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign.


        Department of the Shenandoah.

        Major-General Nathaniel P. Banks.

        First Division, Brig.-Gen. Alpheus S. Williams.

        First Brigade, Col. Dudley Donnelly : 6th Conn., Lieut.- Col. George D. Chapman; 28th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Edwin B. Brown; 46th Pa., Col. Joseph R. Knipe; 1st Md.,.Col. John R. Kenly (w and c). Brigade loss: k, 17; w, 98: m. 735 = 850.

        Third Brigade, Col. George R. Gordon: 2d Mass. Lieut.-Col. George L. Andrews; 29th Pa., Col. John K. Murphy (c), Capt. Samuel M. Zulich; 27th Ind., Col. Silas Colgrove; 3d Wis., Col. Thomas H. Ruger. Brigade loss: k, 22; w, 80; m, 507 = 609.

        Cavalry: 1st Mich. (5 (co's), Col. Thornton F. Brodhead, Maj. Angelo Paldi. Loss: k, 10; w, 9; m, 35=54. Artillery, Capt. Robert B. Hampton: M, Ist N. Y., Lieut. James H. Pea- body: F, Pa., Lieut. J. Presley Fleming; B, 4th U. 8. Lieut. Franklin B. Crosby. Artillery loss: k, 2; w, 14; m, 12 = 28.

        Cavalry Brigade, Brig-Gen. John P. Hatch: Ist Me. (5 co's), Lieut.-Col. Calvin R. Douty; 1st Vt., Col. Charles H. Tompkins; 5th N. Y. Col. Othneil De Forest; 1st Md. (5 co's), Lieut.-Col. Charles Wetschky. Brigade loss: k, 5; w, 25 m, (?) = (?).

        Unattached: 10th Me. Col. Geo. L. Beal; 8th N. Y. Cav. (5 co's, dismounted), Lieut.-Col. Charles R. Bab- bitt; Pa. Zouaves d'Afrique, Capt. Charles a. T. Collis; E, Pe. Art'y (section), Lieut. Charles A. Atwell. Unattached loss: k, 6; w, 17: m, 131 = 154.

        The total loss of Banks's troops at Front Royal, Middletown, Newtown, Winchester, etc., from May 23d to 25th, is reported as 62 killed. 243 wounded, and 1714 captured or missing = 2019. But Jackson claims (" Official Records," Vol. XII., Pt. I., g. 708) number of prisoners captured by his command was about 3050, including about 750 sick end wounded in the hospitals at Winchester and Strasburg. The effective strength of Banks's command was reported, April 30th, at 9178, and June 16th (after the battle) at 7113.

Battle of Winchester Civil War Marker
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Battle of Winchester, Virginia

1st Battle of Winchester Marker
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First Battle of Winchester History


        Department of the Valley.

        Major-General Thomas J. Jackson.

        Jackson's Division.

        First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Charles S. Winder: 2d Va., Col. J. W. Allen; 4th Va., Col. Charles A. Ronald; 5th Va., Col. W. S. H. Baylor, Lieut.-Col. J. H. S. Funk; 27th Va., Col. A. J. Grigsby; 33d Va., Col. John F. Neff. Brigade loss: Winchester, k, 10; w, 27 = 37. Port Republic, B, 13; w. 154; m. 32 = 199.

        Second Brigade, Col. J. A. Campbell (w), Col. John M. Patton: 21st Va., Col. John M. Patton, Lieut.-Col. R. H. Cunningham; 42d Va., Maj. Henry Lane (w), Capt. John E. Penn, Lieut.-Col. William Martin; 48th Va., Captain Samuel Hale (w), Maj. J. B. Moseley, Lieut.-Col. Thomas S. Garnett; 1st Va. (Irish) Battalion, Capt. B. W. Leigh, Maj. John Seddon. Brigade loss: Winchester, k, 2; w, 14 = 16. Cross public, k, 4; w, 16 = 20.

        Third Brigade, Col. Samuel V. Fulkerson, Brig.-Gen. William B. Taliaferro: 10th Va., Col. E. T. H. Warren; 23d Va., Col. A. G. Taliaferro, Lieut.-Col. George W. Curtis; 37th Va., Maj. T. V. Williams, Col. Samuel V. Fulkerson. Brigade loss: Winchester, k, 2; w, 34 = 36. Port Republic, w, 3.

        Artillery, Col. S. Crutchfield (chief of artillery of Jackson's entire command): Va. Battery, Capt. Joseph Carpenter; Va. Battery, Capt. William H. Caskie; Va. Battery (joined at Port Republic), Capt. James McD. Carrington; Va. Battery, Capt. W. E. Cutshaw (w), Lieut. John C. Carpenter; Va. Battery, Capt. William T. Poague ; Va. Battery, Capt. George W. Wooding. Artillery loss: Winchester, k, 3; w, 21 = 24. Port Republic, w, 9; m, 1 = 10.

        Ewell's Division, Major-General Richard S. Ewell.

        Second Brigade, Col. W. C. Scott, Brig.-Gen. Ceorge H. Steuart (w), Col. W. C. Scott: Ist Md. (assigned to brigade June 6th), Col. Bradley T. Johnson; 44th Va.. Col. W. C. Scott; 62d Va., Lieut.-Col. James H. Skinner; 58th Va., Col. Samuel H. Letcher. Brigade loss: Cross Keys, k, 7; w, 65 = 72. Port Republic, k, 30; w, 169 =199.

        Fourth Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Arnold Elzey (w), Col. J. A. Walker: 13th Va., Col. J. A. Walker; 31st Va., Col. John B. Hoffmrtn; 25th Va., Lieut.-Col. Patrick B. Duffy; 12th Ga., Col. Z. T. Conner. Brigade loss: Cross Keys, k, 5; w, 62 = 67. Port Republic, k, 15; w, 80; m, 4 = 99.

        Seventh Brigade, Brig-Gen. Isaac R. Trimble: 21st N. C., Col. W. W. Kirkland (w); 21st Ga., Col. J. T. Mercer; 15th Ala., Col. James Cantey; 16th Miss., Col. Carnot Posey (w). Brigade loss: Winchester, k, 22; w; 75 = 91. Cross Keys, k, 23; w, 109; m, 6= 138.

        Eighth Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Richard Taylor: 6th La., Col. Isaac G. Seymour; 7th La., Col. H. T. Hays (w), Maj. David B. Penn; 8th La., Col. H. B. Kelly; 9th La., Col. Leroy A. Stafford; La. Battalion, Maj. C. R. Wheat. Brigade loss: Front Royal and Winchester, k, 21; w, 109; m, 9 = 133. Cross Keys, k, l; w, 8=9. Port Republic, k, 33; w, 256; m. 9 = 298.

        Maryland Line (attached to Second Brigade June 6th), Brig.-Gen. George H. Steuart (assigned to command of the cavalry May 24th): 1st Infantry, Col. Bradley T. Johnson; Co. A, Cav., Capt. Ridgely Brown; Baltimore Battery, Capt. J. B. Brookenbrough.

        Artillery: Va. Battery, Lieut. J. W. Latimer, Captain A. H. Courtney; Va. Battery, Capt. John A. M. Lusk; Va. Battery, Capt. Charles I. Raine; Va. Battery. Capt. William H. Rice. Artillery loss: Cross Keys, k, 8; w, 20; m, 8 = 36.

        Cavalry, Col. Thomas S. Flournoy, Brig.-Gen. George H. Steuart, Brig.-Gen. Turner Ashby (b), Col. Thomas T. Munford: 2d Va., Lieut-Col. James W. Watts; Col. Thomas T. Munford; 6th Va., Col. Thomas S. Flourney; 7th Va., Col. Turner Ashby (promoted Brig.-Gen. May 23d); Va. Battery. Cavalry loss: Front Royal and Winchester (partial report), k, 11; w, 15 = 26. (Other casualties in the cavalry during the campaign are not specifically stated.)

General Stonewall Jackson
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First Battle of Winchester, Virginia

(About the Memorial) General Stonewall Jackson Memorial. Jackson was mortally wounded by friendly fire at the Battle of Chancellorsville and died one year after the First Battle of Winchester.
        General Jackson reported his losses at Front Royal, Winchester, etc., from May 23d to 31st, as 68 killed, 329 wounded, and 3 missing = 400. At Cross Keys and Port Republic the casualties were 139 killed, 951 wounded, and 60 missing = 1150. As nearly as can be ascertained from the "Official Records," the loss in the campaign was 230 killed, 1373 wounded, and 232 captured or missing = 1878.

        The strength of Jackson's command is nowhere authoritatively stated. Colonel William Allan says in his "Jackson's Valley Campaign," p. 146:" Jackson had moved against Banks, on May 19th, with a total effective force of 16,000 or 17,000 men. . . . His effective force [at Cross Keys] could not have exceeded 13,000, even if it reached that amount." Advance to Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign.

(Sources and related reading below.)

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Sources: National Park Service; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Library of Congress; Clark, Champ, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Decoying the Yanks: Jackson's Valley Campaign. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4724-X; Cozzens, Peter. Shenandoah 1862: Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8078-3200-4; Eicher, David J. The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-84944-5; Esposito, Vincent J. West Point Atlas of American Wars. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. OCLC 5890637; Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 1, Fort Sumter to Perryville. New York: Random House, 1958. ISBN 0-394-49517-9; Freeman, Douglas S. Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 3 vols. New York: Scribner, 1946. ISBN 0-684-85979-3; Gallagher, Gary W., ed. The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862 (Military Campaigns of the Civil War). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8078-2786-X; Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-00918-5; Henderson, G. F. R. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. New York: Smithmark, 1995. ISBN 0-8317-3288-1. First published in 1903 by Longman, Greens, and Co.; Kennedy, Frances H., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998. ISBN 0-395-74012-6; Krick, Robert K. Conquering the Valley: Stonewall Jackson at Port Republic. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1996. ISBN 0-688-11282-X; McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford History of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-503863-0; Martin, David G. Jackson's Valley Campaign: November 1861 – June 1862. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 1994. ISBN 0-938289-40-3; Robertson, James I., Jr. Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend. New York: MacMillan Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-02-864685-1; Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001. ISBN 0-8117-2868-4; Welcher, Frank J. The Union Army, 1861–1865 Organization and Operations. Vol. 1, The Eastern Theater. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-253-36453-1; Civil War Trust;

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