New Jersey in the Civil War

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New Jersey in the American Civil War

New Jersey and the Civil War (1861-1865)

New Jersey (1861-1865)

On Jan. 29, 1861, the legislature of New Jersey passed a series
of joint resolutions, which set forth that it was the duty of every
good citizen, in all suitable and proper ways, to stand by and sus-
tain the Union of the States as transmitted to us by our fathers;
that the government of the United States is a national govern-
ment and the Union it was designed to perfect is not a mere
compact or league; that the Constitution was adopted in a spirit
of mutual compromise and concession by the people of the
United States, and can only be preserved by the constant rec-
ognition of that spirit.
In these resolutions the legislature further recommended that
the resolutions and propositions submitted to the senate of the
United States by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, for
the compromise of the questions in dispute between the people
of the northern and southern states, or any other constitutional
method that would permanently settle the question of slavery,
as being acceptable to the people of New Jersey, and requested
the senators and representatives in Congress from New Jersey
to earnestly urge and support those resolutions and proposi-
tions. The legislature also recommended the calling of a con-
vention of the states to propose amendments to the constitution,
as a last resort to preserve the union of the states. It urged
states that had obnoxious laws in force, which interfered with
the constitutional rights of citizens of the other states, either
in regard to their persons or property, to repeal the same.
The legislature appointed Gov. Charles S. Olden, Peter D.
Vroom, Robert F. Stockton, Benjamin Williamson, Frederick
T. Frelinghuysen, Rodman M. Price, William C. Alexander,
and William S. Stryker, as commissioners to confer with Con-
gress and the sister states and urge upon them the importance
of carrying the principles and objects of the resolutions into ef-
fect. The commissioners above named, in addition to their
other powers, were authorized to meet with those either already
appointed or thereafter to be appointed by the sister State of
Virginia, and such commissioners of other states as had been or
might be thereafter appointed, to meet at Washington on Feb.
4, following.
The legislature further resolved that however undoubted may
be the right of the general government to maintain its authority
and enforce its laws over all parts of the country, it is equally
certain that forbearance and compromise are indispensable at
this crisis to the perpetuity of the Union, and that it is the dic-
tate of reason, wisdom and patriotism peacefully to adjust what-
ever differences exist between the different sections of our
On April 15 President Lincoln issued his first proclamation
for troops to quell the uprising. The number called for was
75,000 men for three months' service, and the quota of New
Jersey was four regiments of 780 men each, or an aggregate of
3,120 men. Gov. Olden was at once notified that a call would
be made on the state for her quota, and on the 17th he received
the requisition from the war department. He immediately is-
sued his proclamation, directing all individuals or organizations
who were willing to respond to report themselves within twenty
days. Orders were issued to the several generals of divisions
to furnish each one regiment and that they fill the regiments
severally required to be furnished, so far as practicable, with
volunteers; the regiments to be completed by draft from the re-
served militia. On the same day that the requisition was re-
ceived, the governor notified the war department that measures
would be immediately taken to comply with its request and that
but a few days would be necessary to ascertain when the men
would probably be at the place of rendezvous, of which infor-
mation would be sent as early as possible.
Immediately after the receipt of the president's proclama-
tion, the telegraph line to Cape May, which had been abandoned
by the company, was put in working order at the expense of the
state; ammunition was ordered to be placed at the disposal of
the generals of the various brigades; a maritime guard was es-
tablished along the line of the coast, the same consisting of pa-
triotic citizens living adjacent thereto; and vigorous measures
were taken to put the whole state in immediate condition for
defense. A company of New Jersey troops, accepted for that
duty by Maj.-Gen. Wool of the United States army, was ordered
to garrison Fort Delaware, but the general government having
previously provided for the safety of that fort the company's
services were not needed and the order was countermanded.
The first company received under the requisition for the
militia was the "Olden Guards." Capt. Joseph A. Yard, of
Trenton, a veteran of the Mexican war, who raised and equipped
a company for that service in 1846, reported and was mustered
into the service of the United States on April 23, and a sufficient
number of companies to compose the four regiments reported
and were mustered in, in quick succession, until April 30, when
the brigade was complete. From the report of O. M. Gen.
Lewis Perrine, we quote the following:
"Very few military companies existed (at the date of the
proclamation of the president), and our arms were limited and
mostly inferior to the improvements of the present day. This
was our condition at the date of your Excellency's proclamation
of the 17th day of April last. On account of the agitated state
of the public mind, and the extent and ramifications of a rebel-
lion, the magnitude of which history does not furnish a par-
allel, and the exposed situation of the arsenal, the following or-
der was issued to one of the military companies of this city:
'State of New Jersey, Office of the Adjutant-General, Trenton,
April 16, 1861. Capt. William R. Murphy, Capt. Co. A, Na-
tional Guard, 1st Regt. Mercer Brigade. Sir: You will con-
sider yourself, and company under your command, detailed for
special service. You will report forthwith to the Quartermas-
ter-General of the state and act under his orders until otherwise
directed. By order of the Commander-in-Chief, R. F. Stockton,
"In obedience to this order, Capt. Murphy reported himself
and command for immediate service. On the same day I di-
rected him to take military possession of the arsenal, with special
instructions to perform guard duty, and to allow no one within
the arsenal walls without special permission.
"The manner in which this corps performed the duties as-
signed them reflects great credit upon its officers and men. The
arsenal had now become the depot for all of our military oper-
ations. The young gentlemen composing this company per-
formed all the duties of a military garrison, and, at the same
time, rendered important service in arming and equipping the
troops for the field for the period of three months' service, from
the 16th of April to the 16th of July, in which seven regiments,
four of militia and three of volunteers, were fully armed and
"When the requisition was made for troops, our militia was
without a proper practical organization, without suitable arms
or equipments, and although the treasury of the state was by
no means embarrassed, it was only in a condition to meet the
demands of peace. After the first requisition had been filled
the indications were so clear to the mind of the governor that
New Jersey was ready for the emergency, and such was the de-
mand throughout the state for the privilege of serving the gov-
ernment, and such the indisposition of some of the southern bor-
der states to meet the requisition made on them, that the gov-
ernor made the offer of two additional regiments.
"The population of New Jersey in the spring of 1861
amounted to 676,000. Of this number 98,806 were liable to
military duty, though without military experience and to a
great extent ignorant of the use of arms. But when the call
came for men to defend the nation's capital, great as had been
the popular reluctance to believe that war was possible, and all-
pervading as was the decay of the martial spirit, there was no
hesitation or delay in the people's response. The whole North
rose with glorious unanimity to vindicate the majesty of insulted
law. New Jersey, from her Revolutionary battle-fields, an-
swered the nation's call with eager pledges of help. The old
flag, displayed aforetime only on fair holidays when no storms
beat, flung out its folds in every town and hamlet, and over se-
cluded country homes, and became a perpetual sign of covenant-
keeping faithfulness — a pledge to all the world that the cause
it symbolized should be maintained at whatever cost. It had
gone down, torn and soiled at Sumter, but it should be raised
again, some day, triumphant and with new stars shining in its
azure field. In every town and village the people, assembling
in public meetings, pledged their utmost resources in behalf of
the imperiled government."
The governor called an extra session of the legislature to meet
at Trenton on April 30, 1861, at which time a loan of $2,000,000
was authorized, to furnish the necessary supplies for troops to
aid in quelling the southern uprising. On May 28 bids were in-
vited for $500,000 of the state loan of $2,000,000, authorized
on May 10, and made payable in from four to eight years. At
the same time a circular was sent to each bank in the state, in-
viting them to subscribe to the loan, and many of the moneyed
institutions responded liberally, $455,000 being realized from
that source alone. Besides this, offers from individuals amount-
ing to $76,800 were received and taken; the treasurer in August
effected temporary loans of $150,000 from banks in Newark,
and $100,000 from the Trenton Banking Company, payable in
60 days, making in all the sum of $781,800.
The four regiments having completed their organizations
were now ready for the seat of war. At that time the com-
munication with Washington by the Baltimore route having
been cut off by the burning of the bridges and the destruction
of the railroad by the Confederates, it became necessary that the
New Jersey troops should proceed thither by way of Annapolis.
The brigade, fully uniformed, armed and equipped, and accom-
panied by a state battery of 4 brass pieces, was accordingly des-
patched by that route on May 3, 1861, on board of 14 propellers,
sailing down the Delaware and Raritan canal to Bordentown
and thence down the Delaware river. This was designated the
1st New Jersey brigade and contained an aggregate of 3,075
men, including officers and musicians.
Information having been previously received from the war
department that it was unable at the time to furnish accouter-
ments and ammunition, and advising that on that account the
New Jersey troops must not yet be moved, it had been deter-
mined on account of the exigencies of the case and the dangers
threatening the national capital that the necessary accouter-
ments should be furnished at the expense of the state. Efforts
were made to procure the requisite ammunition from Maj.-Gen.
Patterson, in command of that immediate department, and from
Maj.-Gen. Wool, then in command at New York. These ef-
forts proving unsuccessful, application was made to Simeon
Draper, chairman of the Union Defence Committee of New
York, who replied that it could be furnished, and Capt. Charles
P. Smith, of Trenton, clerk of the supreme court, was despatched
to New York to procure it. He was successful, though at great
risk, as it was forbidden to ship any ammunition from the city,
and much care had to be exercised in carting it through the
metropolis to the dock. It was, however, shipped from New
York to Camden, after the brigade had left Trenton, one of
the vessels carrying the troops being detailed to receive it at
Camden, where it was taken on board and distributed to the
troops on the other vessels as they pressed down the bay. The
state also furnished rifles, with which the flank companies of
the several regiments were armed.
In a letter to the chief executive of the state, referring to the
exertions of New Jersey in aid of the general government, the
secretary of war used the following language: "For your
prompt and patriotic response to the call of the general govern-
ment, I tender to yourself and the people of New Jersey my
sincere and heartfelt thanks." In a subsequent letter he says:
"Allow me to tender you the thanks of this department for the
very prompt and efficient manner in which you and the people
of your state have responded to the requisitions made upon
The 1st regiment was clothed at Newark, by authority from
the quartermaster-general; the 2nd was mostly clothed at Jer-
sey City, by means advanced by a committee of gentlemen of
that city, and which was afterward reimbursed by the state;
the 3d and 4th were clothed entirely by the state, and the entire
brigade was armed and equipped at the arsenal. The entire
force was recruited, clothed, fully armed, equipped, and trans-
ported to Washington within the short space of 20 days from
the date of the governor's proclamation, at an entire expense
of $192,233.15.
In a short time after the first call of the president for mili-
tary aid, the rapidly increasing proportions of the uprising at
the South rendered it apparent that a greater number of troops,
enlisted for a longer period than those embraced in the first call,
would be required. Accordingly, on May 3, 1861, the presi-
dent's proclamation to that effect was issued, and on the 17th
the requisition and general order for three regiments of volun-
teers from New Jersey, for three years or during the war was
received, in addition to the four regiments from the state al-
ready in the field. The first company of this call was mustered
in on May 21, 1861, under command of Capt. David Hatfield,
of Elizabeth City, who received the appointment of major of the
1st regiment upon its organization. It went into camp at Camp
Olden, near Trenton, where the various companies comprising
the three regiments were also encamped upon being mustered
in. They remained in camp for instruction in drill and disci-
pline until June 28, when, in response to an order from Lieut-
Gen. Scott, they were despatched to Washington by rail, re-
porting at once for duty and becoming a part of the army of the
republic. These regiments were furnished the necessary cloth-
ing, camp and garrison equipage, by the state, made under con-
tract with the lowest bidders, and within 20 days the necessary
supplies were furnished and delivered at the state arsenal, so
that on June 28, the troops, amply provided with everything
necessary for service in the field, were forwarded by rail to
Washington, where they were armed by the general govern-
ment. The cost of fitting out and equipping these regiments
was $177,417.89.

On Aug. 3 a requisition was received from the president for
five additional regiments of infantry, of ten companies each, and
one company of artillery, to be organized and equipped upon
the same terms as those above mentioned, each regiment to be
furnished by the state with a baggage train; and on Sept. 5 a
regiment of riflemen, of twelve companies, and one company of
artillery, was added to the last requisition. These five regiments
were armed with state muskets, altered from flint to percussion
locks, and the 9th regiment was supplied with the new model
Springfield rifle-muskets, furnished by the government. The
cost of organizing and equipping the five, regiments of infan-
try, one of riflemen of twelve companies, two companies of ar-
tillery, and one regiment of cavalry, was $557,480.85. This reg-
iment of cavalry was recruited in 20 days by Hon. William Hal-
sted, an eminent lawyer of Trenton, at that time in his seven-
tieth year, under authority from the president of the United
States. It was afterward attached to the state, and became the
16th regiment or 1st cavalry. The first five regiments under
this call were numbered respectively, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th,
and were uniformed, clothed, armed, equipped and furnished
with camp equipage, horses, ambulances and baggage wagons
by the state. These regiments were raised under an order from
the war department of July 29, 1861. The 4th left Camp
Olden, as did also the independent regiment organized by Col.
Halsted, on Aug. 20, and arrived in Washington and reported
for duty the next day. The 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th reported at
Washington during the months of August, September and Octo-
ber, and went into camp at Meridian hill. The 4th was accom-
panied by a battery of 6 pieces furnished by the state and com-
manded by Capt. William Hexamer, and to the 8th was attached
a battery of 6 pieces, commanded by Capt. John E. Beam.
On Sept. 5 the order to organize a regiment of riflemen com-
prising twelve companies was received from the war depart-
ment, and the first muster of this regiment (the 9th) was made at
Camp Olden on Oct. 5. It remained at that camp, engaged in con-
tinuous drill, under experienced drill sergeants, until Dec. 4, when
it left for Washington, where it arrived two days later. This
was raised as a regiment of sharpshooters and was intended to
excel any in the service. It was uniformed, clothed, equipped, fur-
nished with camp equipage, horses, ambulances, and baggage-
wagons by the state.
There remained in the service, from New Jersey, at the close
of the year 1861, eight regiments of infantry, one of riflemen,
and two artillery companies, numbering 9,850 men holding their
organization from the state; and two regiments, one of cavalry
and one of infantry, raised independently of it. These, with the
men who had joined military organizations in other states,
showed a total of at least 17,000 Jerseymen enlisted in the cause
of the Union. The regiments which were enlisted early under the
calls for troops in 1861 lost heavily and the events toward the
close of that year caused the regiments to fall into a somewhat
disorganized condition. On Jan. 29, 1862, an order was issued
from the war department, placing these regiments under the
state authorities. Prompt measures were adopted to reorganize
them under state officers and an efficient condition was soon
reached. The 1st cavalry was placed under command of Col.
Percy Wyndham and it became very effective.
On July 7, under the call of the president for 300,000 three
years' men, five regiments were required from New Jersey.
There was but one regiment in camp and recruiting was dull,
so it was determined to establish five camps in the state under
different officers. An order was issued providing for the pay-
ment of $2 premium for each recruit, one month's pay and $25
in advance of the $100 provided for by Congress for three years'
service. There was also the bounty paid of $6 by the state to
each family monthly, and from $2 to $4 to single men. A sec-
ond lieutenant was appointed for each company to act as mus-
tering officer, and each recruit as he appeared in camp received
his money, was uniformed and put to drill. By this means the
five regiments were filled in a month. Each regiment had 39
officers, and the five regiments combined contained 4,248 en-
listed men. Some of these regiments went immediately into
action, the 13th leaving the state on Sept. 1, and on the 17th,
at Antietam, it lost 109 in killed, wounded and missing.
Under the president's call of Aug. 4, for 300,000 nine months'
men, an enrollment took place of all citizens from 18 to 45 years
of age. The quota of New Jersey under this call was 10,478
men, and on Aug. 14 an order from the war department di-
rected a draft to be made on Sept. 3. The commissioners, sur-
geons and enrolling officers in each county were appointed and
the local quotas were ready for publication, when an order was
issued that counties should have credit for the volunteers fur-
nished in response to prior calls. This order led to great com-
plications, but the quotas were finally ascertained by adding to
the whole number of volunteers furnished by the state the num-
ber of men required by the new call. From the number thus
resulting to each township was taken the number already fur-
nished, and it was then ordered that volunteers in lieu of drafted
men would be taken up to Sept. 1. The recruits flocked into the
camps, and on Sept. 2 the five places of rendezvous contained
10,800 men, but by medical examination the number was re-
duced to 10,714, or 236 more than the number called for. These
men were organized into eleven regiments, the field and line of-
ficers of which were elected under the constitutional state mili-
tia law. All these regiments were in the army of the Potomac,
and four were engaged in the battle of the Rappahannock
(Fredericksburg), on Dec. 13. Under all the requisitions dur-
ing the first two years of the war the state furnished 30,214
men. A call for 3,000 men to fill up the old regiments was not
met, only 1,030 men having been raised for that purpose, al-
though the state furnished more than that number over all the
quotas, but the men had a great repugnance to old regiments.
The number enlisted in regiments of other states, it is estimated,
carried the total to 35,000.
Of the number in service, 10,373 left families or dependent
mothers, and the state bounty to them, at $6 a month, amounted
to $746,856 per annum. Of single men 12,669 drew an average
of $2.50 per month, making $380,070, and the annual charge
to the state was therefore $1,126,926. The number of men in
the state who were liable to military duty was 71,697. The state
debt at the beginning of the year 1862 was about $770,000, of
which $100,000 was payable annually, and excepting $95,000 it
was all contracted for war purposes. A tax to defray state ex-
penses had been unknown for some years previous to the com-
mencement of the war.
At the session of the legislature at the commencement of
1863 a series of resolutions were passed which were intended to
express the views of the majority of the voters on public affairs.
The series passed the senate by a vote of 12 to 8, and the house
by 38 to 13. The resolutions declared that the state, in promptly
answering all the calls for troops, believed and confided in the
declarations of the president made in his inaugural address, and
in the resolutions of Congress passed in July, 1861; and that,
having waited with patience and forbearance for the redemption
of these pledges, she conceives it to be her solemn duty to urge
upon the president and Congress in the most respectful and de-
cided manner the redemption of the pledges under which the
troops of the state entered upon and have continued in the con-
test; and as the devotion of the state to the sacred cause of per-
petuating the Union and maintaining the Constitution has been
untainted, in any degree, by infidelity, bigotry, sectionalism, or
partisanship, she now, in view of the faith originally plighted,
of the disasters and disgrace that have marked the steps of a
changed and changing policy, and of the imminent dangers that
threaten the national existence, urges upon the president and
Congress a return and adherence to the original policy of the
administration, as the only means by which the Union can be
restored, and the nation saved.
While to some the text of these resolutions may sound like
discordant notes in the chorus of patriotism that thrilled the
North in those days, yet they must not be construed as reflect-
ing a disloyal sentiment to any degree. The people of the na-
tion were in the midst of a conflict, in magnitude unequaled in
the history of the world, and it is not at all surprising, nor does
it at all reflect upon the patriotism of a considerable number of
people that they could not subscribe to and endorse all of the
measures employed by the national administration for the pur-
pose of bringing the war to a successful close. As an evidence
of patriotic impulses attention is called to the action of the state
authorities and the people of New Jersey, in the summer of
1863, when Lee invaded Pennsylvania. At that time Gov. Cur-
tin of the latter state sent a message to the governor of New
Jersey, requesting the aid of troops from that state, and the
secretary of war also sent a request to the governor for troops,
whereupon Gov. Joel Parker immediately issued the following
call for men:
"Jerseymen: The State of Pennsylvania is invaded. A hos-
tile army is now occupying and despoiling the towns of our sis-
ter state. She appeals to New Jersey, through her governor,
to aid in driving back the invading army. Let us respond to
this call upon our patriotic state with unprecedented zeal. I there-
fore call upon the citizens of this state to meet and organize into
companies, and report to the adjutant-general of the state as
soon as possible, to be organized into regiments as the militia
of New Jersey and press forward to the assistance of Pennsyl-
vania in this emergency. The organization of these troops will
be given in general orders as soon as practicable."
The 23d regiment of New Jersey troops, belonging to the
nine months' service, was on its march to Beverly to be finally
mustered out, its term of service having expired, when the men
were apprised at Philadelphia of Lee's advance and the sup-
posed danger of Harrisburg, the capital of the Keystone state.
Then, as stated above, came the proclamation of Gov. Parker, a
few days afterward, appealing to the people, and regiments not
yet disbanded or in process of formation, to hasten to the aid of
a sister state. When this appeal was made, less than half of the
regiment was in camp, but Col. Grubb assembled together all
who were present and asked all who would follow him in re-
sponse to the proclamation of Gov. Parker to step two paces to
the front and not a man hesitated. The only transportation
they could get was a coal train, upon which they embarked and
in due time reached Harrisburg, when they were taken to the
river and set to work throwing up rifle-pits to prevent the ene-
my crossing the river, which at the time was very shallow.
There the men, from the colonel down, worked steadily, but be-
fore the labor was completed orders were received directing
the regiment to return to Beverly, where they were mustered
out on June 27.
Up to July, 1863, there had been five requisitions made on the
state for men, all of which had been promptly responded to, and
twenty-eight regiments, comprising 30,214 men had been fur-
nished, 23,042 of whom, comprising twenty-four regiments,
were still in the field. During the summer months, while the
enrollment under the conscription act of 1863 was being com-
pleted, and until the provost marshal general should be pre-
pared to commence the draft, it was announced that volunteers
would be accepted in lieu of drafted men, and the quota for the
state was fixed at 8,783. Rendezvous were opened simulta-
neously at Trenton, Beverly, Newark, Freehold, Flemington
and Hudson City, and post quartermasters were appointed at
each place. The entire quota was raised by volunteering, so
that no draft took place in the state. The amount expended
during the year for recruiting, subsisting, clothing and trans-
porting the troops of the state mustered into the service of the
United States, together with ten companies mustered for ser-
vice in Pennsylvania, was $591,640.75.
Until May, 1864, the troops contributed by New Jersey to the
Federal service were furnished by volunteering, principally
through the state authorities. After the date mentioned they
were raised chiefly through United States officials, by the oper-
ation of the conscription act. On May 16, 1864, Gov. Parker
issued a proclamation in response to a call from the president to
raise immediately all the militia force he could for the period of
100 days from the date of muster into the U. S. service and to
be furnished within 15 days. No bounty was to be given,
neither were their services to be credited upon any draft. The
37th regiment, organized under this call, left Trenton on June
28, 1864, 700 strong, and proceeded direct to Baltimore, from
whence it was taken by steamer to City Point, Va. On July
18, 1864, the president issued a proclamation for 500,000 troops,
for one, two or three years' service, and on the 25th, the gov-
ernor issued his proclamation, giving the quota of New Jersey
at 15,891 men. The 38th regiment was raised in the summer
and autumn of that year, and on Sept. 30, Col. William J.
Sewell accepted its command and completed the regiment in 15
days. The regiment was sent to Fort Powhatan, about 15 miles
below City Point. The 39th regiment was recruited under the
same call and left Newark early in October of the same year,
five companies leaving on the 4th and the others a few days
later. The 40th regiment was organized under General Orders
No. 243 (Series of 1864), of the war department. It was raised
under the immediate superintendence of Col. Stephen R. Gil-
kyson, who afterward became its commander, and the last com-
pany was mustered in on March 10, 1865.
The number of men mustered into the United States service
from New Jersey during the war, exclusive of the militia sent
to aid in the defense of Maryland and Pennsylvania in 1863,
was 79,348 — a total greater than all the able-bodied men in the
state between the ages of eighteen and forty-five at the com-
mencement of the war. Foster, in his admirable work entitled
"New Jersey and the Rebellion," makes the following summary
"We have seen that the total number of regiments furnished
by New Jersey during the war was forty, including infantry and
cavalry, together with five batteries of artillery. The number
of men furnished by the state out of 98,806 liable to do military
duty, was 88,305, being 10,057 in excess of the number called
for by the general government, and within 10,501 of her entire
militia at that time. Of this number 79,348 served with state
organizations, and the remainder in regiments of other states.
The naval and marine enlistments from New Jersey numbered
Several companies that had been rejected at home, in conse-
quence of the quota there being filled and the governor having
no authority to accept any more troops, joined a brigade of
Gen. Sickles' that was forming in New York, called the Excel-
sior brigade, which was placed to the credit of the state of New
York, although the men composing it were recruited from all
parts of the country. In its first regiment alone, 70th N. Y.,
two entire companies — I and K — and a part of Co. A were re-
cruited in New Jersey, while in five other companies there were
a number of men who claimed New Jersey as their home. In
fact, throughout the entire brigade, the men, with the exception
of the 4th regiment, which was recruited exclusively from the
City of New York, were recruited from the states of Pennsyl-
vania, Michigan and Massachusetts. At the headquarters of the
brigade, in Dec, 1861, it was computed that more than 1,200
Jerseymen were serving in it. Two companies of the "Harris
Light Cavalry," of New York (A and B), were raised in Sus-
sex county, N. J., by Gen. Judson Kilpatrick. Co. A of the
20th N. Y. infantry was also composed of citizens of New Jer-
sey, who served with eminent distinction. The nucleus of
Bramhall's battery, of the same state, was also formed by a
company of men from Rahway. This company originally went
out as Co. K, 9th regiment, New York state militia, and at
Poolesville, Md., it was organized as a 6-gun battery, receiving
recruits from New Jersey and New York. In Serrell's engineers
there were two companies from New Jersey, both of which
achieved distinction by their gallant and faithful services, though
the state never received the credit to which she was entitled, as
this was invariably accorded to New York. The 48th N. Y. had two
companies — D and H — from New Jersey. Co. D, recruited mainly
in Trenton, was commanded by Capt. D. C. Knowles, a profes-
sor in Pennington seminary, with James O. Paxson and John
Bodine as first and second lieutenants. It was known as the
"Die-no-mores," from the burden of its favorite hymn. Capt.
Knowles and Lieut. Paxson, both being men of eminent piety,
and many of the command being professors of religion, had in-
fused the same spirit into the entire company, and they were
constantly singing devotional songs, the principal one being
that above mentioned. During the storming of Fort Wagner
they formed a part of the storming party, singing their favorite
song during the engagement. It was there that their gallant
leader, Capt. Paxson, was killed.
Quite a large number of Jerseymen were identified with
Pennsylvania regiments. A company raised at Belvidere by
Charles W. Butz, upon finding the New Jersey quota filled,
proceeded to Philadelphia, and on Sept. 13, 1861, was mus-
tered in as Co. I, of Harlan's independent cavalry, afterward
designated as the nth Pa. cavalry. Many individuals from New
Jersey served in organizations of other states, or in the field
at large, and a large number of them achieved distinction.
Co. A, National Guard, of Trenton, then under command of
Capt. William R. Murphy, was, as previously stated, the first
to offer its services to the governor. The adjutant-general, in
his report to the legislature, said of that company: "Co. A,
National Guard, of Trenton, was organized Nov. 30, 1860, and
at the time the war broke out was in a fine state of discipline.
It had in its ranks the best young men of the city. It was the
first company under arms in the North, and it is claimed, as I
think with truth, that Capt. Murphy issued the first military
order which was promulgated after the publication of the presi-
dent's proclamation. From the hour when the company was
detailed for service at the state arsenal, the most vigorous disci-
pline commenced, and Capt. Murphy became the great drill-
master of the organization. Of the 56 men on constant duty
there, 45 enlisted in the army, or received commissions therein.
The company boasts to-day, with none to challenge it, that it
sent, for its size, more men to the war than any organization
in the North. On the 19th of June, 1863, having recruited
their depleted ranks, under the call of Gov. Curtin 'for the emer-
gency,' they hurried to Harrisburg, passing on the route Penn-
sylvania companies organizing, and were the first to report to
Gov. Curtin for assignment to duty. As men of another state
they were warmly complimented by him for their alacrity and
splendid discipline." The main facts connected with the above
are taken from Foster's "New Jersey in the Rebellion," pub-
lished by authority of the state.
During the entire war New Jersey had ample reason to be
proud of her citizen soldiery, for on every battle-field where
their services were called into requisition, they acquitted them-
selves nobly and ably sustained the reputation of Jersey Blues.
In some of the most difficult enterprises of the war the Jersey
troops occupied a prominent position; from the first battle at
Bull Run to the final surrender at Appomattox they were con-
stantly in service, and in almost all engagements were compli-
mented for their bravery and valor by their general officers.
The best provision within the power of the state was made for
them and their families during their absence, all of which was
highly appreciated by the men themselves, who felt while they
were absent fighting their country's battles, their wives and lit-
tle ones at home were well cared for by the munificence of a
state that well appreciated their services and the hardships en-
dured in the camp and on the field of battle, and used every
means in their power to add to their comfort.
The amount paid by the state during the war to soldiers
honorably discharged and to families and dependent mothers
was $2,317,375, and besides this amount an aggregate of more
than $2,300,000 was transmitted by soldiers in the field for the
benefit of their families in the state. The remains of 77 New
Jersey soldiers were entombed at the Gettysburg cemetery, the
graves being all regularly graded, headstones erected, the ave-
nues macadamized, and trees and shrubbery planted. Meas-
ures having been taken for the establishment of a similar ceme-
tery at Antietam, an agent was sent by the governor of New
Jersey to visit all the battle-fields in Maryland, and mark the
graves of the New Jersey dead, so that their remains might be
identified, with the view of reinterment at Antietam. On March
23, 1865, the legislature passed an act incorporating the "Sol-
diers' Children's Home" at Trenton, and on April 6 an appro-
priation of $5,000 was made in aid of the institution. "The
Home" was placed under the management of an association of
ladies and the homeless orphan children were clothed and in-
structed at the expense of the institution. From statistics of
orphanage returned to the secretary of state, at the beginning of
1865, it appeared that there were in the state at that time 1,865
orphan or half-orphan children of soldiers or sailors, and of
that number there were 1,589 under twelve years of age. An
act was also approved on March 23, 1865, to authorize the es-
tablishment of a home for disabled soldiers.
And when, by reason of the war being brought to a suc-
cessful close, the survivors of New Jersey's citizen soldiery re-
turned to their homes, they were received with every demon-
stration within the power of their fellow-citizens to bestow upon
them, in which all classes joined to do them honor and show the
great appreciation of the noble services of the Jersey boys in

See also New Jersey Civil War History
Source: The Union Army, vol. 3


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