Ohio and the Civil War (1861-1865)
Ohio (1861-1865), part 4
|Total Ohio Civil War Troops and Total Killed
|Total Ohio Civil War Soldiers in the Union Army and the State's Total Killed and Casualties
During the year 1864 the Federal government called upon
Ohio for troops
to be furnished within that period as follows:
Feb. 1, 1864, 51,465; March 14, 1864, 20,598; July 18, 1864,
50,797; total, 122,857.
By a revision of
the credits this quota was reduced to 102,653.
The method already adopted was used in raising these troops.
bounties were offered until as much as $1,000 was paid to
get a recruit up to the mustering officer and as much more to
him to the front. To fill deficiencies under the first two calls, a
draft was ordered in May, which produced 7,711
men; of whom
6,290 paid commutation amounting to $1,887,000, and the remain-
der 1,421, went into the service in person
or by substitutes of
their own procuring. For the same purpose a draft was ordered
under the last call, commencing
in September. These facts do
not have a patriotic ring, but such was the record, and no state
did better than Ohio,
for she supplied the government with all
the men called for, and more too, on Dec. 1, the excess amount-
ing to 2,984
men. Eleven new regiments were organized in 1864,
running the numbers up to 183 of infantry, and old regiments
recruited. In April the governor tendered to the Federal
government the service of 30,000 militia for 100 days, and on
suggestion a meeting of western governors was held at Wash-
ington, when Brough, Morton of Indiana, Yates of Illinois, and
of Iowa, together offered President Lincoln 85,000 militia
for the purpose of holding the frontier and lines of communica-
tion, so that the experienced troops could be released to take part
in a united effort to crush the rebellion. The
reasons which in-
duced this offer were thus stated by Gov. Brough:
"The policy of this movement did not admit
of doubt or hesi-
tancy. The summer campaigns were about to open in Virginia
and Tennessee. Both of them must necessarily
continually lengthening lines of communication, requiring large
forces to protect them. At the same time
it was necessary that the
Virginia army should cover and protect the national capital, and
that of Tennessee hold
safe the border. In previous campaigns we
had suffered from this species of depletion to an extent that se-
impaired the value of our successes. At the time of con-
sidering this proposition a large body of hardy and veteran troops
were engaged in garrison duty, and guarding lines of com-
munication, which could be as well done by less experienced
To relieve these, and throw them forward, was to give to each
of our operating armies a large reserve force.
The time before
the opening of the campaigns was too short to admit of a call,
with its attendant of a draft, even
if the legislation of Congress,
not then completed, had admitted of such a measure. The policy
was, therefore, apparent,
of supporting our active armies by the
militia, until legislation could be perfected, and an additional
call be made.
"The states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, had another manifest
interest in this movement. In order to save our
ders from incursions and raids, it was evidently sound policy to
so strengthen our main armies as to
furnish full employment for
the rebel forces in their own territory. In this particular the re-
sult fully justified
the wisdom of the movement. But one raid
was attempted during the season, and that was checked and over-
Kentucky before reaching the Ohio river."
The offer was at once accepted by the Federal government and
were immediately called for from Ohio, the work of or-
ganizing them falling upon Adjt.-Gen. B. R. Cowen. People
if the militia would respond and on the day set (May 2)
a cold, heavy rain fell, that seemed a gloomy token of failure.
But at night came the thrilling news that 38,000 were in camp
for duty at various towns and cities of the state. The
ment at Washington was amazed, and was not ready with muster-
ing officers, so that the movement of the men
was delayed. Gov.
Brough asked that he might send more than 30,000 and Stanton
accepted all he could raise, to fill
up the deficiencies of other
states, saying: "They may decide the war." From Ohio's offer-
ing were organized for
the 100 day's service forty-one regiments
and one battalion, with an aggregate strength of 35,982 men.
one regiment and the battaHon were reserved at John-
son's island, one regiment at Camp Chase, one at Gallipolis
two at Camp Dennison. The remaining thirty-six regiments,
embracing an aggregate strength of 31,051 men, were sent out
the state into Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia.
Six went to the front under Gen. Benjamin
F. Butler; two were
in the battle of Monocacy, where they suffered a loss of 4 killed,
7 wounded, and a number of
prisoners; one was stationed at
Martinsburg, Va., where it suffered a loss by capture of over 200;
one regiment was
with Gen. Hunter in his severe march to
Lynchburg and back, reporting the loss of only 1 man; other
stationed at Baltimore and Washington, and saw
active service in the raid upon the latter city in July, 1864; three
the regiments went into Kentucky to meet Morgan's last raid
and at Cynthiana lost heavily in killed, wounded and captured.
The war was not ended when their term of service expired,
but they did much to "decide the war," for Grant needed
veterans they released from guard and other duties for his cam-
paign in Virginia.
In the army that moved across the Rapidan commencing May,
4, 1864, under
the command of Gen. Grant, there were a compar-
atively small number of Ohio regiments, the great mass of Ohio
at the front being at that time in North Georgia, for the
campaign to Atlanta. In all Ohio contributed eighty-six regi-
ments and sixteen batteries to this magnificent army, that ma-
neuvered and fought under Gen. Sherman for a hundred
from Dalton to Jonesboro and occupied Atlanta in the early days
of September. Thousands of these Ohio soldiers
among the killed and wounded in the battles of Resaca, New
Hope, Kenesaw mountain, Peachtree creek,
Atlanta and Jones-
boro, and the innumerable skirmishes of the Atlanta campaign.
When Sherman marched to the sea he
took with him forty Ohio
infantry regiments, three of cavalry and two of the Ohio bat-
teries. Over thirty Ohio regiments
were left behind in Georgia
and Tennessee under Gen. George H. Thomas, when Sherman
marched from Atlanta, and they
shared in the bloody victory
of Franklin and the rout of Hood's army before Nashville.
In the midst of the presidential
campaign of 1864, and while
a draft was impending, discovery was made of a secret organ-
ization, akin to the "Knights
of the Golden Circle," opposed to
the war and the enlistment of troops. The adjutant-general
estimated that it embraced
from 80,000 to 100,000 members in
Ohio. But no serious trouble resulted. There were rumors also
of expeditions from
Canada to release Confederate prisoners, of
whom there were large numbers held at Camp Chase, near
Columbus, on Johnson's
island, and at Camp Douglas, Chicago.
An attempt was actually made in September against Johnson's
a place for the detention of Confederate cap-
tured officers) by John Yates Beall, of Virginia, who, with a few
seized the steamer Philo Parsons, at Sandwich, cap-
tured and scuttled the steamer Island Queen, and cruised about
bay, awaiting a signal from another conspirator to make
an attack on the war boat Michigan. But the attempt failed,
Parsons was scuttled on the Canada shore, Beall was cap-
tured later and being accused of attempting to wreck an express
train, was hanged at Governor's island. New York. Other at-
tempts to release Confederate prisoners from Northern
camps were planned, but all failed.
On Oct. 27, great excitement
was created at Cleveland by
rumors of a raid by Confederates from Canada. The civil, mil-
itary and United States
authorities made great preparations to
receive the raiders. It was feared that the purpose was to in-
the presidential election, which was to be held in
a few days, and Gen. Joseph Hooker, then in command of the
issued the following order:
"Headquarters Northern Department,
"Cincinnati, Oct. 27, 1864.
"The commander of this department has received information
that it is the intention of a large body of men on
frontier, on each side of the line, open on one side, and in dis-
guise on the other, to so organize
at the ensuing national election
as to interfere with the integrity of the election, and when in
their power to cast
illegal votes; in fact, in any way interfere
with the honest expressions of the electors.
"In view of the foregoing
facts, it is made the duty of all
officers of the government, both civil and military, as well as loyal
to guard well the integrity of the ballot-box.
"All military officers, including provost marshals and their
will be held to a strict accountability for the adoption
of such measures within their districts or commands, as will
only prevent illegal voting, but to arrest and bring to justice
all who attempt such voting, or endeavor to prevent
exercise of the elective franchise.
"The citizens and civil authorities of the towns and cities
the northern frontier are particularly requested to give any
information they may have, or may from time to time receive,
to the provost marshals or military authorities, whose duty it is
to inform the nearest provost marshal general or
authority, and to take measures to arrest and confine any and all
connected with such organizations.
The late raid on the lakes
and in New England are ample evidence that neither life nor
property are safe.
provost marshals and assistants, and all military com-
manders, will take measures to obtain and report at once any
that may lead to the prevention of this interference
with the rights of the people, or aid in the arrest and punishment
of the offenders; they from time to time will report by telegraph
any new facts.
"Local authorities will receive
all the aid within the control
of the military commander.
"By command of Maj.-Gen. Hooker.
"C. H. Potter, Ass't Adj't Gen."
But the fears proved to be largely unfounded, and the pres-
election in Ohio passed off very quietly, resulting in the
giving to Mr. Lincoln a majority of 59,418, including the vote
of the soldiers in the field.
The year 1865 opened with Sherman marching northward
from Savannah to crush
the united remnants of the Confederate
armies that had held Atlanta and Charleston, and with Grant
and Sheridan waiting
for passable roads to compel the surrender
of Richmond. On April 9, the telegraphic news of the surrender
of Lee was
received with the wildest rejoicing in Ohio, but a
little later — April 14 — the state was plunged in mourning
horrifying news that President Lincoln had been assassinated.
In the sad journey of the martyred president's
body to Illinois,
a stop was made at Cleveland, where the coffin was placed under
an open temple and viewed by thousands.
At Columbus the
body lay for a day in the rotunda of the capitol, upon a mound
of flowers, while the walls about were
hung with the tattered
battleflags of Ohio regiments. The streets were draped in
mourning, minute guns sounded through
the day, and the people
crowded in tearful silence about the body of the great leader
of the Union.
the grand reviews at Washington — May 23 and June 8,
1865 — the Ohio troops with Grant and Sherman in large
were mustered out and returned to their homes in June and July,
and the men with Thomas and other commanders
in like manner
came home, all being received with the highest manifestations
of honor and approbation. But it was
some time before all re-
turned, for fifteen reorganized Ohio regiments assembled in
Texas to expedite the departure
of the French army from Mex-
ico, and other Ohio troops were kept on garrison duty through-
out the South. But before
the close of the year all but eight of
the Ohio regiments had ceased to be, and the soldiers were again
in the peaceful pursuits of civil life. The last
of Ohio's volunteer army, the 25th infantry, 11th cavalry and
B, 1st artillery, were mustered out in June and July, 1866.
It would be impossible to make an exact estimate of the
of men who entered the national army from Ohio during the
war for the preservation of the Union. Those embraced
imental and company organizations of the state can, of course,
be enumerated, and, with some degree of accuracy,
the time of their death, discharge, or final muster out. The
summaries compiled by the adjutant-general
of the state show
that Ohio furnished troops under the various calls as follows:
Call of April 15, 1861, for 75,000
— 12,357; July 22, 1861, for
500,000 — 84,116; July 2, 1862, for 300,000 — 58,325; June 15,
for militia — 2,736; Oct. 17, 1863, for 500,000 — 32,837;
March 14, 1864, for 200,000 — 29,931; April
22, 1864, for militia
— 36,254; July 18, 1864, for 500,000 — 30,823; Dec. 19, 1864,
for 300,000 —
23,275; grand total, 310,654.
|Map of Ohio Civil War Battles
|Map indicates the few Civil War battles fought in Ohio
|Ohio Civil War Soldiers in Killed and Casualties
|Ohio Total Civil War Killed, Deaths, Died, and Dead by Category
These were 4,000 more than the state was allotted as her share,
and reduced to department
standard they represent quite 240,000
three-year soldiers. The total list of Ohio organizations includes
26 independent batteries, 5 independent com-
panies of cavalry, several corps of sharpshooters, large parts of
West Virginia regiments, two Kentucky regiments, two of
United States colored troops, and a large proportion of two
colored regiments. Besides, the state gave nearly
3,500 men to the gunboat service on western waters and there
many enlistments in the U. S. navy. According to Reid's
summary, Ohio contributed one third of a million men to the
But, "from the best prepared statistics of the provost
marshal-general and adjutant-general of the U. S. A. and the
of Ohio, excluding reenlistments, 'squirrel-hunt-
ers' and militia, and including a low estimate for regular enlist-
in the army and navy not credited to Ohio, it is found that
Ohio furnished of her citizens 340,000 men of all arms of
ice for war; reduced to a department standard, they represent
240,000 three-years soldiers."
(Address by Gen. J. Warren Kei-
fer, at Newark, 1878.) The regimental organizations were di-
vided as follows: 26
regiments of infantry for three months, 43
regiments of infantry for 100 days, 2 regiments of infantry for
27 regiments of infantry for one year, 117 regiments
of infantry for three years. 13 regiments of cavalry for three
3 regiments of artillery for three years.
To these should be added the independent batteries of artillery
companies of cavalry and sharpshooters, the enlistments in
Kentucky and West Virginia regiments, and the colored organ-
izations of other states above mentioned.
Out of her troops who went upon the field, 11,237 were killed
mortally wounded (of which 6,563 died where they fell) and
13,354 died of disease. Out of every thousand, on an average,
37 were killed or mortally wounded, 47 died in hospital, 79 were
honorably discharged for disability, and 44 were
marked as de-
serters. But such an average, like most averages, is deceptive.
The item of desertions is hardly applicable
to the regiments
that went to the front, and, while some regiments suffered
scarcely any loss in battle, others were
nearly destroyed. A brief
dipping into the military records will illustrate. The 1st reg-
iment lost 527 killed and
wounded in 24 battles; the 2nd 537.
The 3d went on Streight's raid into Georgia and were all killed,
wounded or captured
and confined in prison pens where many
died. The 7th, out of 1,800 enlisted from time to time, returned
but 240 able-bodied men. Similar figures might be
given of other regiments. "The total losses in battle of all kinds
both the American and British armies in the seven years' war
of the Revolution, excluding only the captured at Saratoga
Yorktown, is 21,526. This number falls 4,000 below Ohio's dead-
list alone during the late war. * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * The loss of
Ohio officers is known to have reached 872, nearly ten per cent,
of the grand total
of officers." (Gen. Keifer.)
The total war expenses of the state government, beginning
with $1,500,000 in 1861
and ending with over $500,000 in 1865,
was $4,741,373, to which should be added the fund for relief of
their families, which rose from $500,000 in 1862 to
$2,000,000 in 1865, and aggregated $5,618,864. Besides the total
these two items, over $10,000,000, more than $52,000,000 were
paid as local bounties to soldiers, and over $2,000,000
of $100 each to 20,708 veterans in 1864. Furthermore, Ohio paid
$1,332,025 in direct national tax for
the support of the war, a
sum that was refunded in later years. The grand total of Ohio's
war expenditure is given
at nearly $65,000,000.
This enormous total does not, of course, represent all the
pecuniary sacrifice of the state
or of her people. Notable among
the other contributions were those made through the agency of
the Sanitary commission.
The Cincinnati branch, laboring effi-
ciently all through the four years for the relief of Ohio soldiers,
large amounts of money to the cause and forwarded
vast stores of clothing and supplies donated from all parts of the
It established a soldiers' home in 1862, a soldiers' cem-
etery at Spring Grove, and under its auspices was held the
Western Sanitary Fair at Cincinnati, that yielded the
commission over $250,000. Outside of Cincinnati the principal
was the Soldiers' aid society of Cleveland, the first
general organization in the United States for such a purpose,
disbursed in money and goods and food much more than
$1,000,000 established a home,
and also held a fair that brought
in $78,000. The Columbus society, active in the same sort of
work, established a
soldiers' home in 1862. In every part of the
state, these greater efforts were rivalled, according to the ability
smaller communities, and the work was without compensation
or hope of reward. Everywhere the women gathered to scrape
lint for bandages, and make up boxes of clothing and dainties
for the brave men in camp or hospital. And it may be
further, that among these quiet workers there were very few who
were not earnest supporters of the war to the
bitter end. They
labored to hold the people true to the cause of establishing and
perpetuating a national America,
with no more compromises for
its betrayal. The angelic work of Misses Alary Clark Braton
and Ellen F. Terry in organizing
and conducting the Sanitary
commission at Cleveland on a scale coequal with the war, right-
fully classes each of
them with Florence Nightingale of the Cri-
Men of Ohio birth — Grant, Rosecrans, Buell, McDowell,
man, Sheridan, McPherson, Crook — commanded armies with, on
the whole, more success than the generals
of any and all other
states. Indeed, if we may include McClellan, who, it may be
said, was presented to the nation
by Ohio, the greater Union
armies were, the greater part of the time, under the leadership
of Ohio men. The most successful
of these were the sons of Ohio
pioneers and were reared in log cabins or humble village homes,
in the western atmosphere
of equality and fearlessness.
Gens. Rutherford B. Hayes and James A. Garfield, and Bvt.
Maj. William McKinley,
each became president of the United
States. Garfield and McKinley with the immortal Lincoln —
what a galaxy
of greatness — constitute the Republic's martyred
Grant, Sherman and Sheridan are the only men
who have held
the rank of general in the U. S. A. since Washington.
Ohio furnished in the Civil war 20 major-generals,
generals by brevet, 30 brigadier-generals, and 150 brevet brig-
adier-generals — 229 general officers
An appended list (see Appendix) of these officers (prepared
mainly by Gen. John Beatty of Ohio) is not
complete as to all
grades of general officers. It omits Gens. Eli Long, Charles G.
Marker, Samuel S. Carroll and others
(not born in Ohio) but
who each commanded an Ohio organization before promotion,
and the list does not include many
others, Ohio born, who be-
came generals in that war from other states, notably Halbert E.
Paine (Wis.), Benjamin
Harrison (Ind., since president of the
United States) and Robert M. Mitchell (Kan.).
Among the naval officers
particularly distinguished for patri-
otism was Henry Walke, of Virginia birth, who had been reared
and educated at
Chillicothe. He was unfaltering in upholding
the honor of the flag at Pensacola, aided in saving Fort Pickens
nation, and on the Mississippi river from the fall of 1861
to the fall of 1863 had a conspicuous part in all the naval
ing, as the commander of the famous Carondelet. Afterward
he chased the Confederate cruisers on the Atlantic,
and his ser-
vice was rewarded by promotion to commodore in 1866, and to
rear-admiral in 1870. Among the naval officers
on the Atlantic
coast, commanding a monitor in the attacks on Fort Sumter
and other Confederate strongholds, was Daniel
brother of Gen. Jacob Ammen, and a native of Brown county,
Ohio; James Findlay Schenck, a brother of Gen.
Schenck, was made a commodore in 1863, and took an important
part in the attack upon Fort Fisher. Reed Worden,
S. C. Rowan
and Roger M. Stembel who became admirals in the navy were
from Ohio and each performed great service in
the Civil war.
Not only did Ohio furnish great commanders but she gave
the nation great statesmen, like Chase,
whose administration of
the treasury department was one of the memorable features of
that period — not perfect
according to some critics, but on the whole
as good as human imperfection would permit; Stanton, secre-
tary of war
— stern, tireless, single in purpose — who will always
be conspicuous among the heroes of the most dramatic
American history; Benjamin F. Wade, the bold and unhesitating
leader of the war party in the senate; John Sherman,
calm, deliberate — a power in steadying the ship of state; John
A. Bingham, a famous leader, and Schenck
and Garfield, who
were both statesmen and soldiers. Samuel Shellabarger, member
of Congress from Ohio, was distinguished
for bringing into
requisition his great legal learning in high statesmanship.
Among the newspaper men of the Union,
Edwin Cowles, of
Cleveland, a native of Ashtabula county, and Murat Halstead,
born in Butler county, were inferior
to none in ability or devo-
tion to the government. Whitelaw Reid, the Xenia editor, be-
came war correspondent of
the New York Tribune, and upon
his observations many thousands based their hopes of success.
The potent weapon of
ridicule was turned so strongly against the
opponents of the war by David Ross Locke in the Toledo Blade,
was soberly declared in a speech at Cooper institute. New
York, that three things saved the Union, "the army, the navy,
and the letters of 'Petroleum V. Nasby.'"
Again, if songs are more important than laws, as was believed
ancient times, Ohio was eminent in that field also. In the
trenches of the Crimea, it is said, the English all sang "Annie
rie." In the Union army they sang "Lorena," written by a young
Zanesville preacher. Soldiers of many states,
when they thought
of home, hummed the plaintive lines of "Rain upon the Roof," by
Coates Kinney, of Xenia. Nor was
there lackofpoets to express the
patriotic sentiment of the people. In the latter days of the war
the people more strongly to the final and
supreme effort than the "Sheridan's Ride." of Thomas Buchanan
is wholly impracticable of course to mention by name the
private soldiers of Ohio who rendered faithful service to the
country, or to make special reference to those even who were
killed in battle and interred in battlefield-graves on
of their bloody conflicts where they fought and fell. "There are
none so obtuse, however, as not to know
that in patriotism and
courage, and frequently in education, wealth and natural capacity,
the private soldier of the
Union army was the full equal of those
under whom he served, and to whose orders he gave prompt
obedience. In war, as in politics, all cannot
be leaders, and often in both spheres the selfish and incompetent
clamorously to the front, while men of superior merit stand
modestly back, content to accept any place in a good work
which accident may assign them." (Gen. John Beatty in Howe's
Historical Collections of Ohio.)
who bore the brunt and burden of the conflict
are, as has been suggested, too numerous to receive special per-
recognition, those who survive and the friends of the dead
and the living may find pleasure in reviewing the history of
Ohio organizations here given, the brilliant achievements of which
were made possible by the courage, loyalty
and heroism of the
well led private soldiers.
The abridged sketch of Ohio in the war for the preservation
the Union of Washington, and for the perpetuity of constitu-
tional liberty in America's Republic, and in the world, is
cluded by a brief summary tribute to the service of her soldiers
in that war.
THE SERVICE OF OHIO SOLDIERS.
They fought and bled on every great battle-field of the war,
from Big Bethel (June 10, 1861), the first, to Blakely
(April 9, 1865), the last battle of the war.
Ohio soldiers followed Thomas to victory at Mill Springs,
Garfield, of Ohio, at Prestonburg, Ky., in Jan., 1862.
Ohio soldiers formed a large part of the army that
the works and captured Fort Donelson, where, under Grant, a son
of Ohio, the eagles of the Union soared first
to victory on the
grander theatre of war. They fought at Island No. 10, at Shiloh,
Corinth, luka and Perryville. Her
soldiers bore a large share
in the deadly conflicts at Stone's river, and Chickamauga, under
Rosecrans, another of
Ohio's great and patriotic generals.
They were of the grand army under Grant, Sherman and Mc-
what a trio of Ohio generals ! — which swung around
to the south of Vicksburg, and fought and won the battles of
Champion's hill, Jackson and Big Black river, and joined in the
siege and capture of Vicksburg.
at Arkansas Post, Port Hudson and Grand Gulf.
They also manned gunboats under Adm. Porter, which, with the
the army, opened the "Father of Waters" to the Gulf.
During the war they campaigned against the Indians in the
West. They were with Hooker, and thundered down "the
defiance of the skies" from above the clouds at Lookout
They were under the eagle eye of Thomas at Chickamauga,
and in scaling the heights and seizing the redoubts on
They formed a great part of each of the grand divisions of
that triune army in which solid
"Old Pap Thomas" led the center,
McPherson (of Ohio) the right and Schofield the left; the whole
under "Old Tecumseh
Sherman," who is neither last nor least of
Ohio's great generals. Under his directing eye that army blazed
almost through mountains, forced the passage of
streams, overcame natural and artificial defences, and a great
well commanded; fought battles daily for weeks, with more
regularity than they partook of their daily bread; stormed the
fortified heights of Resaca, and Kennesaw mountain; assaulted
the works at Ruff's mills, where the gallant Gen. Edward
Noyes (since governor of Ohio and minister to France), lost a
leg; also the fortifications at Jonesboro and Atlanta,
capturing the latter place and leaving behind a considerable de-
tachment, swept off eastward to Savannah
and the Sea, thence
northward through the Carolinas to the Old Dominion, tearing
out the vitals of the Confederacy,
striking terror to the enemy
and carrying the flag to victory.
They were present at the captures of Nashville,
New Orleans and Richmond. The Ohio soldiers fought and tri-
umphed at Franklin, under Cox and Stanley, both
of Ohio, and
at Nashville, under Thomas.
Ohio "boys in blue" fought at Pea ridge, and assaulted at
and Fisher; they also, under Gen. Wm. B. Hazen,
of Ohio, stormed Fort McAllister, on the Atlantic coast.
fought at Rich mountain, Bull Run, Cheat mountain,
Port Republic, at Fair Oaks, Malvern hill. Cedar mountain,
and Manassas, South mountain and Antietam, Win-
chester (under Milroy and others), Fredericksburg, under Burn-
; Chancellorsville, under Hooker, and Gettysburg, under
Meade; also at Mine Run. They were of the Army of the Po-
in that "all summer" campaign of 1864, in which an almost
continuous battle raged from the Rapidan to Petersburg. They
bled and died at Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor.
They constituted, throughout the war, a part of the body-guard
of the capitol.
They were under that other son of Ohio, Gen. Sheridan, at
Opequan and Fisher's hill, in the
Shenandoah Valley, in the
former of which Gen. Crook (an Ohio man), with Hayes of
Ohio (since president of the United
States), at the head of the
Kanawha division, hurled, like an avalanche, the Army of West
Virginia upon Breckenridge's
forces, overthrew the left wing of
Early's army and insured its defeat and rout.
They were with Sheridan, too,
at the bloody battle of Cedar
creek, where he rode from Winchester, "twenty miles away,"
to the music of the cannon's
roar and, at the end of the day,
achieved a victory, which, for completeness, is without a parallel
among the important
field-engagements of the war, if in the
annals of history.
The battle of Marengo, in Italy, in some degree affords
parallel to the battle of Cedar creek in its dual character —
practically two battles in one day — and
also in the complete
overthrow and almost total annihilation of the army, victorious
in the onset of the battle. In
other respects the two battles were
dissimilar. Napoleon won the battle of Marengo by the oppor-
tune arrival on the
field of Desaix, the hero of the battle of the
Pyramids, with six thousand fresh troops. The battle of Cedar
was won by the timely arrival of Sheridan, without troops.
Ohio's soldiers were in the sieges of Petersburg and Rich-
mond; also of Charleston, S. C, under Gillmore, another of her
heroes. They defended Knoxville, under Burnside. They
to glory over the ramparts at Petersburg. They bared their
breasts to the storm at Five Forks (under Sheridan
of Ohio), and at Sailors' creek, under the same and other offi-
cers of Ohio.
They were in at the
crowning success, and witnessed the sur-
render of the Army of Northern Virginia, under Lee, at Appo-
mattox, to Gen.
Grant. They were with Sherman at Bentonville,
and in the redemption of North Carolina, and the capture of
great Confederate army, under Gen. Joseph E.
Her generals and soldiers held posts of honor, when they
were posts of responsibility and danger. Many of the scenes
of conflict where Ohio's sons fought and fell are nameless,
they are almost numberless. They were in every place of dan-
ger and duty, where blood flowed and battle-flags
They marched, bivouacked, fought and died along the shores of
the Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, on
the Rio Grande, the Mis-
sissippi, the Cumberland and Tennessee. They, as sailors and
marines, were under Dahlgren,
DuPont, Porter, Foote and Far-
ragut, and with them also, on the rivers, the gulf and the sea,
won glory and renown,
and paid the debt of patriotism and valor.
Ohio blood was poured out wherever sacrifices were required.
neither sectional in their opinions or their duty. Be-
lieving in one flag and one country, they fought side by side with
men of all sections and of all extractions, and for the preserva-
tion of the God-granted and natural boon of liberty
They were component parts of each of the grand Union armies
which contended upon the thirty-one
principal battle-fields of the
war. They were generally present at each of the 2,731 battles,
affairs or skirmishes
of the war. Their trials, sufferings and
dangers were not confined to the combats of the contending hosts.
OHIO GENERAL OFFICERS, WITH STATE AND DATE OF BIRTH.
(The * indicates a graduate of West Point; the t that
was major-general by brevet, usually for some special gallantry on
*Ulysses S. Grant, born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 27,
*William T. Sherman, born at Lancaster, Ohio,
Feb. 8, 1820.
*Philip H. Sheridan, born at Albany, N. Y., March 6, 1831.
*Don Carlos Buell,
born at Lowell, March 23, 1818.
*George Crook, Montgomery county, Sept. 8, 1828.
*George A. Custer, Harrison county,
Dec. 5, 1839.
*Quincy A. Gillmore, Lorain county, Feb. 28, 1825.
James A. Garfield, Cuyahoga county, Nov. 19, 1831.
*James B. McPherson, Clyde, Nov. 14, 1828.
*Irvin McDowell. Columbus, Oct. 15, 1818.
*Alex. McD. McCook, Columbiana
county, April 22, 1831.
*William S. Rosecrans, Delaware county, Sept. 6, 1819.
*David S. Stanley, Wayne county, June
Robert C. Schenck, Warren county, Oct. 4, 1809.
Wager Swayne, Columbus, Nov. 10, 1834.
Cincinnati, Nov. 1, 1835.
MAJOR-GENERALS, RESIDENT IN OHIO BUT BORN ELSEWHERE.
Jacob D. Cox, born in New York,
Oct. 27, 1828.
*William B. Hazen, Vermont, Sept. 27, 1830.
Mortimer D. Leggett, New York, April 19, 1831.
B. McClellan, Pennsylvania, Dec. 3, 1826.
*O. M. Mitchel, Kentucky, Aug. 28, 1810.
James B. Steedman, Pennsylvania,
July 30, 1818.
BRIGADIER-GENERALS OF OHIO BIRTH.
*William T. H. Brooks, born at New Lisbon, Jan. 28, 1821.
Burns, Coshocton, Sept. 3, 1825.
tHenry B. Banning, Knox county, Nov. 10, 1834.
*C. P. Buckingham, Zanesville. March
John Beatty, Sandusky, Dec. 16, 1828.
Joel A. Dewey, Ashtabula, Sept. 20, 1840.
tThomas H. Ewing,
Lancaster, Aug. 7, 1829.
tHugh B. Ewing, Lancaster, Oct. 31, 1826.
*James W. Forsyth, Ohio, Aug. 26, 1836.
S. Granger, Zanesville, May 24, 1816.
t*Kenner Garrard, Cincinnati, 1830.
t*CharIes Griffin, Licking county, 1826.
tRutherford B. Hayes, Delaware, Oct. 14, 1822.
tJ. Warren Keifer, Clark county, Jan. 30, 1836.
William H. Lytic,
Cincinnati, Nov. 2, 1826.
*John S. Mason, Steubenville, Aug. 21, 1824.
Robert L. McCook, New Lisbon, Dec. 28, 1827.
Daniel McCook, Carrollton, Julv 22, 1834.
John G. Mitchell, Piqua, Nov. 6, 1838.
Nathaniel C. McLean, Warren county,
Feb. 2, 1815.
tEmerson Opdycke, Trumbull county, Jan. 7, 1830.
Benjamin F. Potts, Carroll county. Jan. 29, 1836.
Sanders Piatt, Cincinnati, May 2, 182 1.
tJames S. Robinson, Mansfield, Oct. 11, 1828.
tBenjamin P. Runkle, West Liberty,
Sept. 3, 1836.
J. W. Reilly, Akron, May 21, 1828.
* William Sooy Smith, Pickaway county, July 22, 1830.
Sill, Chillicothe, Dec, 6, 1831.
John P. Slough, Cincinnati, 1829.
Ferdinand Van Derveer, Butler county, Feb. 27,
t*Charles R. Woods, Licking county.
tWilliard Warner, Granville, Sept. 4, 1826.
tWilliam B. Woods, Licking
tCharles C. Walcutt, Columbus, Feb. 12, 1838.
M. S. Wade, Cincinnati, Dec. 2, 1802.
BRIGADIER-GENERALS, RESIDENT IN OHIO BUT BORN ELSEWHERE.
Ammen, born in Virginia, Jan. 7, 1808.
tSamuel Beatty, Pennsylvania, Sept. 16, 1820.
t*B. W. Brice, Virginia, 1809.
Ralph B. Buckland, Massachusetts, Jan. 20, 1812.
H. B. Carrington, Connecticut, March 2, 1824.
George P. Este,
New Hampshire, April 30, 1830.
tManning F. Force, Washington, D. C, Dec. 17, 1824.
tJohn W. Fuller, England, July,
tCharles W. Hill, Vermont.
tAugust V. Kautz, Germany, Jan. 5, 1828.
George W. Morgan, Pennsylvania.
H. Powell, South Wales, May 10, 1825.
*E. P. Scammon, Maine, Dec. 27, 1816.
Thomas Kilby Smith, Massachusetts, 1821.
tJohn W. Sprague, New York, April 4, 1827.
fErastus B. Tyler,
t*John C. Tibbal, Virginia.
tAugust Willich, Prussia, 1810.
Source: The Union Army, vol. 2
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